Table of Contents
ISRN Rehabilitation
Volume 2013, Article ID 232978, 6 pages
Clinical Study

The Influence of Self-Efficacy on Mood States in People with Spinal Cord Injury

1Rehabilitation Studies Unit, Sydney Medical School-Northern, The University of Sydney, P.O. Box 6, Ryde, Sydney, NSW 1680, Australia
2Key University Centre for Health Technologies, University of Technology, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia

Received 18 January 2013; Accepted 17 February 2013

Academic Editors: P. Czarnecki, J. D. Kingsley, J. J. Sosnoff, and M. Yu

Copyright © 2013 Ashley Craig et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. Negative mood is prevalent in people with a neurological injury such as spinal cord injury (SCI). However, research is needed for determining those people with SCI who are vulnerable to negative mood states, as well as establishing the influence of self-efficacy, that is, expectations of their control over their lives. The objective of this research was to investigate the protective role that self-efficacy may play in adult people with SCI compared to able-bodied controls. Methods. Participants included 41 adults with SCI living in the community and 41 able-bodied controls similar in age, sex ratio, and education. All participants completed a psychological assessment regimen in a relaxed environment. Measures consisted of validated measures of self-efficacy and negative mood states. Results. The SCI group was found to have significantly elevated levels of depressive mood, anxiety, stress, and poor self-efficacy. SCI participants with low levels of self-efficacy were shown to have significantly elevated levels of depressive mood and anxiety in comparison to those SCI participants with high levels of self-efficacy and able-bodied controls. Conclusions. People with a neurological injury such as SCI are vulnerable to experiencing clinically elevated negative mood states if they have poor expectations of control over their lives. Implications for SCI rehabilitation are discussed.