Table of Contents
ISRN Urology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 240108, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/240108
Review Article

Adverse Effects of Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Prevention and Management

Urology Department, General Hospital of Veria, 55133 Thessaloniki, Greece

Received 30 April 2013; Accepted 6 July 2013

Academic Editors: T. G. Kwon, P. Van Veldhizen, and S. Yücel

Copyright © 2013 Petros Sountoulides and Thomas Rountos. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Siegel, C. DeSantis, K. Virgo et al., “Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2012,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 62, pp. 220–241, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. A. Perlmutter and H. Lepor, “Androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of advanced prostate Cancer,” Reviews in Urology, vol. 9, supplement 1, pp. S3–S8, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  3. M. A. Khan and A. W. Partin, “Management of high-risk populations with locally advanced prostate cancer,” Oncologist, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 259–269, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. Miyamoto, E. M. Messing, and C. Chang, “Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: current status and future prospects,” Prostate, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 332–353, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. V. B. Shahinian, Y. Kuo, and S. M. Gilbert, “Reimbursement policy and androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 19, pp. 1822–1832, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Miyamoto and E. M. Messing, “Early versus late hormonal therapy for prostate cancer,” Current Urology Reports, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 188–196, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. “Immediate versus deferred treatment for advanced prostatic cancer: initial results of the Medical Research Council Trial. The Medical Research Council Prostate Cancer Working Party Investigators Group,” British Journal of Urology, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 235–246, 1997.
  8. V. Pagliarulo, S. Bracarda, M. A. Eisenberger et al., “Contemporary role of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer,” European Urology, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 11–25, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  9. G. J. Bubley, “Is the flare phenomenon clinically significant?” Urology, vol. 58, no. 2, supplement 1, pp. 5–9, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W. K. Oh, M. B. Landrum, E. B. Lamont, B. J. McNeil, and N. L. Keating, “Does oral antiandrogen use before leuteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer prevent clinical consequences of a testosterone flare?” Urology, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 642–647, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Lepor, “Optimizing the role of hormonal therapy in the management of prostate cancer,” Reviews in Urology, vol. 7, pp. S1–S2, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  12. J. M. Jones, M. Kohli, and C. L. Loprinzi, “Androgen deprivation therapy-associated vasomotor symptoms,” Asian Journal of Andrology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 193–197, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. D. Shanafelt, D. L. Barton, A. A. Adjei, and C. L. Loprinzi, “Pathophysiology and treatment of hot flashes,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 1207–1218, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Spetz, E. Zetterlund, E. Varenhorst, and M. Hammar, “Incidence and management of hot flashes in prostate cancer,” The Journal of Supportive Oncology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 263–272, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Frisk, “Managing hot flushes in men after prostate cancer—a systematic review,” Maturitas, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Irani, L. Salomon, R. Oba, P. Bouchard, and N. Mottet, “Efficacy of venlafaxine, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and cyproterone acetate for the treatment of vasomotor hot flushes in men taking gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues for prostate cancer: a double-blind, randomised trial,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 147–154, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. K. H. Morrow, D. N. Mattair, and G. N. Hortobagyi, “Hot flashes: a review of pathophysiology and treatment modalities,” Oncologist, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1658–1664, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. L. Loprinzi, J. C. Michalak, S. K. Quella et al., “Megestrol acetate for the prevention of hot flashes,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 331, no. 6, pp. 347–352, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. A. Dawson, M. Conaway, S. Halabi et al., “A randomized study comparing standard versus moderately high dose megestrol acetate for patients with advanced prostate carcinoma: cancer and leukemia group B study 9181,” Cancer, vol. 88, article 825, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  20. P. A. Burch and C. L. Loprinzi, “Prostate-specific antigen decline after withdrawal of low-dose megestrol acetate,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 1087–1088, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. K. Quella, C. L. Loprinzi, J. Sloan et al., “Pilot evaluation of venlafaxine for the treatment of hot flashes in men undergoing androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer,” Journal of Urology, vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 98–102, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. N. H. Baum and D. C. Torti, “Managing hot flashes in men being treated for prostate cancer,” Geriatrics, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 18–21, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Kaplan, S. Mahon, D. Cope, E. Keating, S. Hill, and M. Jacobson, “Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions for hot flashes resulting from cancer therapies,” Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 149–157, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. R. Moraska, P. J. Atherton, D. W. Szydlo et al., “Gabapentin for the management of hot flashes in prostate cancer survivors: a longitudinal continuation study-NCCTG trial N00CB,” Journal of Supportive Oncology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 128–132, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. J. DiBlasio, J. B. Malcolm, I. H. Derweesh et al., “Patterns of sexual and erectile dysfunction and response to treatment in patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer,” BJU International, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 39–43, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. G. Casey, N. M. Corcoran, and S. Larry Goldenberg, “Quality of life issues in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: a review,” Asian Journal of Andrology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 226–231, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. Sharifi, J. L. Gulley, and W. L. Dahut, “Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 294, no. 2, pp. 238–244, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. Wibowo and R. J. Wassersug, “The effect of estrogen on the sexual interest of castrated males: implications to prostate cancer patients on androgen-deprivation therapy,” Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. T. H. Diamond, J. Bucci, J. H. Kersley, P. Aslan, W. B. Lynch, and C. Bryant, “Osteoporosis and spinal fractures in men with prostate cancer: risk factors and effects of androgen deprivation therapy,” Journal of Urology, vol. 172, no. 2, pp. 529–532, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. W. Ross and E. J. Small, “Osteoporosis in men treated with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer,” Journal of Urology, vol. 167, no. 5, pp. 1952–1956, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. M. H. Alibhai, L. Yun, A. M. Cheung, and L. Paszat, “Screening for osteoporosis in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 307, no. 3, pp. 255–256, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. G. Oefelein, V. Ricchuiti, W. Conrad et al., “Skeletal fracture associated with androgen suppression induced osteoporosis: the clinical incidence and risk factors for patients with prostate cancer,” Journal of Urology, vol. 166, p. 1724, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  33. V. B. Shahinian, Y. Kuo, J. L. Freeman, and J. S. Goodwin, “Risk of fracture after androgen deprivation for prostate cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 2, pp. 154–164, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. W. Dickman, J. Adolfsson, K. Åström, and G. Steineck, “Hip fractures in men with prostate cancer treated with orchiectomy,” Journal of Urology, vol. 172, no. 6, part 1, pp. 2208–2212, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. G. Oefelein, V. Ricchiuti, W. Conrad, and M. I. Resnick, “Skeletal fractures negatively correlate with overall survival in men with prostate cancer,” Journal of Urology, vol. 168, no. 3, pp. 1005–1007, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. A. Conde and W. J. Aronson, “Risk factors for male osteoporosis,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 380–383, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. L. Krupski, M. R. Smith, W. C. Lee et al., “Natural history of bone complications in men with prostate carcinoma initiating androgen deprivation therapy.,” Cancer, vol. 101, p. 541, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  38. M. R. Smith, J. Eastham, D. M. Gleason, D. Shasha, S. Tchekmedyian, and N. Zinner, “Randomized controlled trial of zoledronic acid to prevent bone loss in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for nonmetastatic prostate cancer,” Journal of Urology, vol. 169, no. 6, pp. 2008–2012, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Ziaran, F. M. Goncalves, and B. J. Sen, “Bone mineral density, pathological fractures and bisphosphonate therapy in prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy,” Endocrine Regulations, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 199–204, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. N. Mottet, T. Prayer-Galetti, P. Hammerer, M. W. Kattan, and U. Tunn, “Optimizing outcomes and quality of life in the hormonal treatment of prostate cancer,” BJU International, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 20–27, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. J. Saylor and M. D. Michaelson, “Should the denosumab metastasis prevention trial change practice for men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer?” Oncologist, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 288–290, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. Fizazi, M. Carducci, M. Smith et al., “Denosumab versus zoledronic acid for treatment of bone metastases in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a randomised, double-blind study,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9768, pp. 813–822, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. R. Smith, F. Saad, R. Coleman et al., “Denosumab and bone-metastasis-free survival in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: results of a phase 3, randomised, placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 379, no. 9810, pp. 39–46, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. Ahmadi and S. Daneshmand, “Androgen deprivation therapy: evidence-based management of side effects,” BJU International, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 543–548, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  45. P. J. Saylor, R. J. Lee, and M. R. Smith, “Emerging therapies to prevent skeletal morbidity in men with prostate cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 27, pp. 3705–3714, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Shahani, M. Braga-Basaria, M. Maggio, and S. Basaria, “Androgens and erythropoiesis: past and present,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 704–716, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. R. Choo, S. Chander, C. Danjoux et al., “How are hemoglobin levels affected by androgen deprivation in non-metastatic prostate cancer patients?” The Canadian Journal of Urology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 2547–2552, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. R. Smith, “Complimentary and alternative therapies for advanced prostate cancer,” Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 15, pp. 559–571, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  49. R. J. Kumar, A. Barqawi, and E. D. Crawford, “Adverse events associated with hormonal therapy for prostate cancer,” Reviews in Urology, vol. 7, pp. S37–S43, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  50. O. P. Almeida, A. Waterreus, N. Spry, L. Flicker, and R. N. Martins, “One year follow-up study of the association between chemical castration, sex hormones, beta-amyloid, memory and depression in men,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1071–1081, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. J. Bloomfield, V. Shilling, and T. A. Edginton, “longitudinal pilot study to investigate whether hormonal therapy for prostate cancer affects cognition,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 14S, p. 4646, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  52. C. Nedelec, S. Ragot, J. Irani, C. Pires, R. Gil, and B. Doré, “Effects by androgen suppression with luteinizing hormone on cognitive functions in men treated for cancer of prostate,” Progres en Urologie, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. M. Beer, L. B. Bland, M. Garzotto et al., “Effect of high-dose estrogen on memory in men with prostate cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 14S, p. 4650, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  54. A. Saini, A. Berruti, C. Cracco et al., “Psychological distress in men with prostate cancer receiving adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 352–358, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  55. N. Timilshina, H. Breunis, and S. Alibhai, “Impact of androgen deprivation therapy on depressive symptoms in men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer,” Cancer, vol. 118, no. 7, pp. 1940–1945, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. Lakka, D. E. Laaksonen, T. A. Lakka et al., “The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 21, pp. 2709–2716, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. P. J. Saylor and M. R. Smith, “Metabolic complications of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate Cancer,” Journal of Urology, vol. 181, no. 5, pp. 1998–2008, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. P. Wirth, W. A. See, D. G. McLeod, P. Iversen, T. Morris, and K. Carroll, “Bicalutamide 150 mg in addition to standard care in patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer: results from the second analysis of the early prostate cancer program at median followup of 5.4 years,” Journal of Urology, vol. 172, no. 5, part 1, pp. 1865–1870, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. D. C. Beyer, T. McKeough, and T. Thomas, “Impact of short course hormonal therapy on overall and cancer specific survival after permanent prostate brachytherapy,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 1299–1306, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. N. L. Keating, A. J. O'Malley, and M. R. Smith, “Diabetes and cardiovascular disease during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 27, pp. 4448–4456, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. V. D'Amico, J. W. Denham, J. Crook et al., “Influence of androgen suppression therapy for prostate cancer on the frequency and timing of fatal myocardial infarctions,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 17, pp. 2420–2425, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. E. Levy, S. Perera, G. J. van Londen, J. B. Nelson, C. A. Clay, and S. L. Greenspan, “Physical function changes in prostate Cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy: a 2-year prospective study,” Urology, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 735–739, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. D. A. Galvão, D. R. Taaffe, N. Spry, D. Joseph, and R. U. Newton, “Combined resistance and aerobic exercise program reverses muscle loss in men undergoing androgen suppression therapy for prostate cancer without bone metastases: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 340–347, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. D. A. Galvo, D. R. Taaffe, N. Spry, D. Joseph, and R. U. Newton, “Acute versus chronic exposure to androgen suppression for prostate cancer: impact on the exercise response,” Journal of Urology, vol. 186, no. 4, pp. 1291–1297, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. L. M. Walker, S. Tran, R. J. Wassersug, B. Thomas, and J. W. Robinson, “Patientsand partners lack knowledge of androgen deprivation therapy side effects,” Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. S. L. Goldenberg, N. Bruchovsky, M. E. Gleave et al., “Intermittent androgen suppression in the treatment of prostatic carcinoma: an update,” Journal of Urology, vol. 157, p. 333, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  67. S. Malone, G. Perry, R. Segal, S. Dahrouge, and J. Crook, “Long-term side-effects of intermittent androgen suppression therapy in prostate cancer: results of a phase II study,” BJU International, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 514–520, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. S. Bhandari, J. Crook, and M. Hussain, “Should intermittent androgen deprivation be used in routine clinical practice?” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 32, pp. 8212–8218, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus