Table of Contents
ISRN Virology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 306595, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/306595
Review Article

Molecular Signaling and Cellular Pathways for Virus Entry

1Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
2Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan

Received 19 August 2012; Accepted 11 September 2012

Academic Editors: S. Norley and D. Shukla

Copyright © 2013 Pei-I Chi and Hung-Jen Liu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The cell signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular processes and is often manipulated by viruses as they rely on the functions offered by cells for their propagation. The first stage of their host life is to pass the genetic materials into the cell. Although some viruses can directly penetrate into cytosol, in fact, most virus entry into their host cells is through endocytosis. This machinery initiates with cell type specific cellular signaling pathways, and the signaling compounds can be proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. The activation can be triggered in a very short time after virus binds on target cells, such as receptors. The signaling pathways involved in regulation of viral entry are wide diversity that often cross-talk between different endocytosis results. Furthermore, some viruses have the ability to use the multiple internalization pathways which leads to the regulation being even more complex. In this paper, we discuss some recent advances in our understanding of cellular pathways for virus entry, molecular signaling during virus entry, formation of endocytic vesicles, and the traffic.