International Scholarly Research Notices / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Early Total Care versus Damage Control: Current Concepts in the Orthopedic Care of Polytrauma Patients

Table 1

The assessment of the four clinical grades with the corresponding range of clinical parameters (data from [26]).

ParameterStable (grade I)Borderline (grade II)Unstable (grade III)In extremis (grade IV)

ShockBP (mmHg) 100 80–100 60–90 <50–60
Blood units (2 h) 0–2 2–8 5–15 >15
Lactate levels Normal range Approx 2.5 >2.5 Severe acidosis
Base deficit (mmol/L) Normal range No data No data >6–18
ATLS classification I II-III III-IV IV
UO (mL/h) >150 50–150<100 <50

CoagulationPlatelet count (μg/mL)>110000 90000–110000 <70000–90000 <70000
Factor II and V (%) 90–100 70–80 50–70<50
Fibrinogen (g/dL) >1Approx 1<1 DIC
D-DimerNormal range AbnormalAbnormalDIC

Temperature >35°C33–35°C30–32°C30°C or less

Soft tissue injuriesLung function, PaO2/FiO2>350300200–300<200
Chest trauma scores, AISAIS I or II AIS 2AIS 2 AIS 3
Abdominal trauma (moore) II IIIIII III
Pelvic trauma (AO classification)AB or C C C (crush, rollover with abd trauma)
ExtremitiesAIS I or IIAIS II-IIIAIS III-IV Crush, rollover, extremities

Abbreviations: BP: blood pressure, ATLS: advanced trauma life support, UO: urine output, TTS: thoracic trauma score, AIS: abbreviated injury scale, DIC: disseminated intravascular coagulation.