Table of Contents
ISRN Education
Volume 2013, Article ID 363847, 5 pages
Review Article

A Critical Look at Oppositional Culture and the Race Gap in Education

Hofstra University, Department of Sociology, 202B Davison Hall, Hempstead, NY 11549, USA

Received 4 February 2013; Accepted 6 March 2013

Academic Editors: N. Dumais, R. Mamlok-Naaman, and R. Martens

Copyright © 2013 William Mangino. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Klein, Interview with [NYC] Schools Chancellor Joel Klein. Good Day New York (Fox TV), July 2010.
  2. J. Ogbu, Minority Education and Caste: The American System in Cross-Cultural Perspective, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1978.
  3. J. Ogbu, “Minority responses and school experiences,” Journal of Psychohistory, vol. 18, pp. 433–456, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  4. J. W. Ainsworth-Darnell and D. B. Downey, “Assessing the oppositional culture explanation for racial/ethnic differences in school performance,” American Sociological Review, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 536–553, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. L. Harris, “Optimism in the face of despair: black-white differences in beliefs about school as a means for upward social mobility,” Social Science Quarterly, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 608–630, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. B. Downey, “Black/white differences in school performance: the oppositional culture explanation,” Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 34, pp. 107–126, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Downey and J. Ainsworth-Darnell, “The search for oppositional culture among black students,” American Sociological Review, vol. 67, pp. 156–164, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  8. J. Macleod, Ain’t No Makin’ It: Leveled Aspirations in a Low-Income Neighborhood, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1987.
  9. K. Spenner and D. Featherman, “Achievement ambitions,” Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 4, pp. 373–420, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  10. R. Mickelson, “The attitude-achievement paradox among black adolescents,” Sociology of Education, vol. 6, pp. 44–61, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  11. G. Farkas, C. Lleras, and S. Maczuga, “Does oppositional culture exist in minority and poverty peer groups?” American Sociological Review, vol. 67, pp. 148–155, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  12. D. B. Downey, J. W. Ainsworth, and Z. Qian, “Rethinking the attitude-achievement paradox among blacks,” Sociology of Education, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 1–19, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Crenshaw, N. Gotanda, G. Peller, and K. Thomas, Eds., Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement, The New Press, New York, NY, USA, 1995.
  14. P. Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment, Routledge, New York, NY, USA, 2000–2009.
  15. P. Bourdieu and L. Wacquant, An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology, University of Chicago Press, 1992.
  16. O. Lewis, “The culture of poverty,” The Scientific American, vol. 215, no. 4, pp. 19–25, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Willis, Learning to Labor, Columbia University Press, 1977.
  18. J. Coleman, The Adolescent Society, The Free Press, New York, NY, USA, 1961.
  19. W. Du Bois, “The conservation of races,” in W. E. B. Dubois on Sociology and the Black Community, D. Green and E. Driver, Eds., pp. 238–249, University of Chicago Press, 1897–1978. View at Google Scholar
  20. B. Anderson, Imagined Communities, Verso, London, UK, 1991.
  21. R. Collins, Conflict Sociology, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1975.
  22. K. Erikson, “On pseudospeciation and social speciation,” in Genocide, War, and Human Survival, C. Strozier and M. Flynn, Eds., pp. 51–57, Rowan and Littlefield, Lanham, Md, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  23. R. Merton, Social Theory and Social Structure, The Free Press, New York, NY, USA, 1968.
  24. M. Sherif, L. Harvey, B. White, W. Hood, and C. Sherif, The Robber’s Cave Experiment: Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation, Wesleyan University Press, 1961–1988.
  25. G. Simmel, Conflict and the Web of Group Affiliations, The Free Press, New York, NY, USA, 1922–1955.
  26. W. Mangino, “Dissecting segregation: contained at an affluent high school,” International Review of Modern Sociology, vol. 38, pp. 25–64, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  27. D. Massey and N. Denton, American Apartheid. Segregation and the Making of the Underclass, Harvard University Press, 1993.
  28. K. Tyson, W. Darity Jr., and D. R. Castellino, “It's not “a black thing”: understanding the burden of acting white and other dilemmas of high achievement,” American Sociological Review, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 582–605, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Anderson, Code of the Streets, Norton & Company, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
  30. B. Pettit and B. Western, “Mass imprisonment and the life course: race and class inequality in U.S. Incarceration,” American Sociological Review, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 151–169, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Alexander, The Meanings of Social Life: A Cultural Sociology, Oxford University Press, 2003.
  32. R. Collins, Interaction Ritual Chains, Princeton University Press, 2004.
  33. M. L. Small, D. J. Harding, and M. Lamont, “Reconsidering culture and poverty,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 629, no. 1, pp. 6–27, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. The Du Bois Review,” vol. 8, no. 2, 2011, entire issue.
  35. A. Swidler, “Culture in action: symbols and strategies,” American Sociological Review, vol. 51, pp. 273–286, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  36. D. B. Downey and S. Pribesh, “When race matters: teachers' evaluations of students' classroom behavior,” Sociology of Education, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 267–282, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. Jencks and M. Phillips, The Black-White Test Score Gap, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1998.
  38. P. Mason, “Race, culture, and skill: interracial wage differences among African Americans, Latinos, and Whites,” Review of Black Political Economy, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 5–39, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. Conley, Being Black, Living in the Red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America, University of California Press, 2010, 10th Anniversary Edition.
  40. W. Mangino, “Why do whites and the rich have less need for education?” The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, vol. 71, pp. 562–602, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  41. J. Ainsworth and G. Wiggan, “Reconsidering “material conditions”: how neighborhood context can shape outcomes across racial groups,” in Beyond Acting White: Reframing the Debate on Black Student Achievement, E. Horvat and C. O’Connor, Eds., pp. 159–199, Rowman & Littlefield, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  42. W. Mangino, “Race to college: the ‘Reverse Gap’,” Race and Social Problems, pp. 1–15, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Z. Charles, V. J. Roscigno, and K. C. Torres, “Racial inequality and college attendance: the mediating role of parental investments,” Social Science Research, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 329–352, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. R. Bennett and Y. Xie, “Revisiting racial differences in college attendance: the role of historically black colleges and universities,” American Sociological Review, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 567–580, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. Kao and J. S. Thompson, “Racial and ethnic stratification in educational achievement and attainment,” Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 29, pp. 417–442, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. Hauser, “Trends in college entry among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics,” in Studies of Supply and Demand in Higher Education, C. Clotfelter and M. Rothschild, Eds., pp. 61–120, University of Chicago Press, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  47. R. Herrnstein and C. Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, The Free Press, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
  48. M. Oliver and T. Shapiro, Black Wealth, White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality, Routledge, New York, NY, USA, 2006, 10th Anniversary Edition.
  49. I. Katznelson, When Affirmative Action was White, W.W. Norton, New York, NY, USA, 2005.
  50. D. B. Downey, P. T. Von Hippel, and M. Hughes, “Are “failing” schools really failing? Using seasonal comparison to evaluate school effectiveness,” Sociology of Education, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 242–270, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Marsh, Class Dismissed, Monthly Review Press, New York, NY, USA, 2011.
  52. Coleman, Campbell, Hobson et al., Equality of Educational Opportunity, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA, 1966.
  53. M. Granovetter, “Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness,” American Journal of Sociology, vol. 91, pp. 481–510, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  54. W. Mangino and M. Silver, “Sound communities and healthy schools: the economic and social determinants of educational outcomes,” International Journal of Sociology, vol. 40, pp. 59–83, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  55. M. Rebell and J. Wardenski, Of Course Money Matters: Why Arguments to the Contrary Never Added Up, The Campaign for Fiscal Equity, New York, NY, USA, 2004.