Table of Contents
ISRN Nutrition
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 396581, 8 pages
Clinical Study

Likely Additive Ergogenic Effects of Combined Preexercise Dietary Nitrate and Caffeine Ingestion in Trained Cyclists

1School of Life Sciences, The University of Nottingham Medical School, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
2School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK

Received 14 October 2013; Accepted 7 November 2013

Academic Editors: G. D'Antona, B. Knechtle, and H. Zouhal

Copyright © 2013 Michal K. Handzlik and Michael Gleeson. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Aims. To evaluate the possible additive effects of beetroot juice plus caffeine on exercise performance. Methods. In a randomized, double-blinded study design, fourteen healthy well-trained men aged years performed four trials on different occasions following preexercise ingestion of placebo (PLA), PLA plus 5 mg/kg caffeine (PLA+C), beetroot juice providing 8 mmol of nitrate (BR), and beetroot juice plus caffeine (BR+C). Participants cycled at 60% maximal oxygen uptake ( max) for 30 min followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) trial at 80% max. Saliva was collected before supplement ingestion, before exercise, and after the TTE trial for salivary nitrate, nitrite, and cortisol analysis. Results. In beetroot trials, saliva nitrate and nitrite increased >10-fold before exercise compared with preingestion ( ). TTE in BR+C was 46% higher than in PLA ( ) and 18% and 27% nonsignificant TTE improvements were observed on BR+C compared with BR and PLA+C alone, respectively. Lower ratings of perceived exertion during TTE were found during 80% max on BR+C compared with PLA and PLA+C ( for both). Conclusions. Acute preexercise beetroot juice coingestion with caffeine likely has additive effects on exercise performance compared with either beetroot or caffeine alone.