
Spatial scale  Minimum comparable area (MCA)  Microregion  Mesoregion  State 
Method  OLS  FE  FD  SYSGMM  OLS  FE  FD  SYSGMM  OLS  FE  FD  SYSGMM  OLS  FE  FD  SYS GMM 
               

Spatial weight matrix: 400 km cutoff                 
Moran's in the residuals (70's)  0.1204***  0.1306***  —  0.2238***  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  — 
Moran's in the residuals (80's)  0.1106***  0.0677***  0.1122***  0.1729***  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  — 
Moran's in the residuals (90's)  0.1033***  0.1286***  0.1104***  0.1963***  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  — 

Spatial weight matrix: 500 km cutoff                 
Moran's in the residuals (70's)  0.1046***  0.1069***  —  0.1897***  0.1546***  0.1951***  —  0.2065***  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  — 
Moran's in the residuals (80's)  0.0855***  0.0471***  0.0863***  0.1431***  0.1296***  0.1458***  0.1399***  0.1757***  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  — 
Moran's in the residuals (90's)  0.0741***  0.1039***  0.0867***  0.1608***  0.2291***  0.2572***  0.2463***  0.1861***  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  — 

Spatial weight matrix: 600 km cutoff                 
Moran's in the residuals (70's)  0.0890***  0.0857***  —  0.1605***  0.1252***  0.1511***  —  0.1623***  0.1407***  0.1388***  —  0.3561***  —  —  —  — 
Moran's in the residuals (80's)  0.0661***  0.0300***  0.0668***  0.1195***  0.0938***  0.1116***  0.1075***  0.1498***  0.1634***  0.2643***  0.1394***  0.4788**  —  —  —  — 
Moran's in the residuals (90's)  0.0482***  0.0800***  0.0641***  0.1295***  0.1955***  0.2117***  0.2033***  0.1409***  0.4009***  0.3118***  0.3740***  0.4324***  —  —  —  — 

Spatial weight matrix: 700 km cutoff                 
Moran's in the residuals (70's)  0.0771***  0.0687***  —  0.1418***  0.0915***  0.1212***  —  0.1180***  0.1374***  0.1006***  —  0.3416***  —  —  —  — 
Moran's in the residuals (80's)  0.0513***  0.0174***  0.0516***  0.1022***  0.0690***  0.0847***  0.0816***  0.1243***  0.1319***  0.2297***  0.1049***  0.4151***  —  —  —  — 
Moran's in the residuals (90's)  0.0283***  0.0617***  0.0472***  0.1053***  0.1641***  0.1813***  0.1722***  0.0942***  0.3633***  0.2768***  0.3314***  0.4125***  —  —  —  — 

Spatial weight matrix: 800 km cutoff                 
Moran's in the residuals (70's)  0.0676***  0.0518***  —  0.1270***  0.0668***  0.0891***  —  0.0807***  0.0739***  0.0990***  —  0.3077***  0.2449**  −0.2716*  —  −0.0141 
Moran's in the residuals (80's)  0.0388***  0.0100***  0.0379***  0.0869***  0.0532***  0.0631***  0.0558***  0.0990***  0.0857***  0.1460***  0.0665***  0.3691***  0.1096  0.1805*  −0.1362  0.1021 
Moran's in the residuals (90's)  0.0159***  0.0478***  0.0362***  0.0873***  0.1381***  0.1539***  0.1468***  0.0574***  0.3456***  0.2976***  0.3196***  0.3718***  0.4721***  0.3318**  0.2930**  0.4296*** 

Spatial weight matrix: 900 km cutoff                 
Moran's in the residuals (70's)  0.0611***  0.0364***  —  0.1157***  0.0463***  0.0630***  —  0.0534***  0.0247  0.0084  —  0.2823***  0.1646  −0.2583*  —  −0.0463 
Moran's in the residuals (80's)  0.0282***  0.0077***  0.0258***  0.0727***  0.0342***  0.0505***  0.0318***  0.0775***  0.0385**  0.1088***  0.0091  0.3263***  0.0588  0.1788*  −0.1779  0.1086 
Moran's in the residuals (90's)  0.0124***  0.0389***  0.0311***  0.0758***  0.1314***  0.1418***  0.1381***  0.0373***  0.2867***  0.2192***  0.2595***  0.3350***  0.5725***  0.3763***  0.3631**  0.4639*** 

Spatial weight matrix: 1000 km cutoff                 
Moran's in the residuals (70's)  0.0573***  0.0249***  —  0.1082***  0.0322***  0.0410***  —  0.0381***  −0.0059  −0.0280  —  0.2380***  0.0452  −0.0971  —  −0.1078 
Moran's in the residuals (80's)  0.0215***  0.0080***  0.0168***  0.0625***  0.0273***  0.0461***  0.0152***  0.0626***  0.0254*  0.0946  −0.0163  0.3020***  0.2046**  0.2634**  0.0596  0.0953 
Moran's in the residuals (90's)  0.0131***  0.0336***  0.0293***  0.0699***  0.1258***  0.1277***  0.1291***  0.0210***  0.2774***  0.2018***  0.2529***  0.3090***  0.3320***  0.0920  0.1167*  0.3531*** 

Spatial weight matrix: 1500 km cutoff                 
Moran's in the residuals (70's)  0.0417***  0.0111***  —  0.0778***  0.0125***  0.0092**  —  0.0176***  −0.0009  −0.0367**  —  0.1562***  −0.0569  −0.1001  —  −0.1803** 
Moran's in the residuals (80's)  0.0055***  0.0018***  0.0030***  0.0276***  0.0190***  0.0375***  −0.0040  0.0296***  −0.0054  0.0518***  −0.0354***  0.1892***  0.0718*  0.1255**  0.0067  −0.0171 
Moran's in the residuals (90's)  0.0154***  0.0253***  0.0233***  0.0537***  0.1034***  0.0827***  0.0920***  0.0114***  0.2035***  0.1319***  0.1689***  0.1993***  0.2859***  0.0770  0.0765*  0.2449*** 

Spatial weight matrix: 2000 km cutoff                 
Moran's in the residuals (70's)  0.0189***  0.0042***  —  0.0399***  0.0030**  0.0049**  —  0.0155***  −0.0119  −0.0171  —  0.0749***  −0.0839  −0.0643  —  −0.0618 
Moran's in the residuals (80's)  −0.0026***  0.0005**  −0.0018***  0.0099***  0.0047**  0.0267***  −0.0078***  0.0168***  0.0014  0.0521***  −0.0273***  0.1238***  0.0780**  −0.0146  −0.0801  0.0635** 
Moran's in the residuals (90's)  0.0120***  0.0189***  0.0184***  0.0317***  0.0710***  0.0597***  0.0666***  0.0116***  0.1370  0.0922***  0.1209***  0.1180***  0.1145**  0.0247  −0.0096  0.1253*** 
