Table 1: Classification of blood pressure variability and its clinical implication.

Type of BPVTime rangeMeasurement equipment or devicesClinical implications

Ultrashort-term (very low frequency, low frequency and high frequency BPV)Beat-to-beat variationDirect continuous intra-arterial recordings coupled to spectral analysisEstimation of neurohumoral systems involved in blood pressure regulation [8]

Short-termMinutes-to-hoursDirect continuous intra-arterial recordings, ABPMIncreased variability in daytime, nighttime, and whole 24 h period associated with increased TOD [4]

Long-termday-to-day, visit-to-visit Office blood pressure, ABPM, home blood pressure monitoringLarge visit-to-visit BPV independently associated with increased incidence of stroke [9, 10]

ABPM: ambulatory blood pressure measurement; BPV: blood pressure variability.