Table of Contents
ISRN Renewable Energy
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 406312, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/406312
Review Article

Analysis of a Three-Phase Grid-Connected PV Power System Using a Modified Dual-Stage Inverter

Department of Electrical Engineering, Power Electronics Institute, Federal University of Santa Catarina, P. O. Box 5119, 88040-970 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil

Received 30 August 2012; Accepted 18 September 2012

Academic Editors: A. Bosio and L. Ozgener

Copyright © 2013 Denizar Cruz Martins. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. X. Yuan and Y. Zhang, “Status and opportunities of photovoltaic inverters in grid-tied and micro-grid systems,” in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, pp. 593–596, August 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. P. Kazmierkowski and L. Malesani, “Current control techniques for three-phase voltage-source pwm converters: a survey,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 691–703, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. M. Kojabadi, B. Yu, I. A. Gadoura, L. Chang, and M. Ghribi, “A novel DSP-based current-controlled PWM strategy for single phase grid connected inverters,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 985–993, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. N. Costogue and S. Lindena, “Comparison of candidate solar array maximum power utilization approaches,” in Proceedings of the Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, pp. 1449–1456, 1976.
  5. E. E. Landsman, Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Arrays, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Labs, Boston, Mass, USA, 1978.
  6. L. L. Bucciarelli, B. L. Grossman, E. F. Lyon, and N. E. Rasmussen, “The energy balance associated with the use of a MPPT in a 100 kW peak power system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 523–527, January 1980. View at Scopus
  7. J. J. Schoeman and J. D. van Wyk, “A simplified maximal power controller for terrestrial photovoltaic panel arrays,” in Proceedings of the 13th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 361–367, 1982.
  8. V. Arcidiacono, S. Corsi, and L. Lambri, “Maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic power plants,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 507–512, 1982.
  9. G. W. Hart, H. M. Branz, and C. H. Cox, “Experimental tests of open-loop maximum-power-point tracking techniques for photovoltaic arrays,” Solar Cells, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 185–195, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. J. Case and J. J. Schoeman, “A minimum component photovoltaic array maximum power point tracker,” in Proceedings of the European Space Power Conference, pp. 107–110, August 1993.
  11. D. C. Martins, C. L. Weber, and R. Demonti, “Photovoltaic power processing with high efficiency using maximum power ratio technique,” in Proceedings of the 28th IEEE Annual Conference of the Industrial Electronics Society (IECON '02), vol. 1, pp. 368–372, November 2002.
  12. D. C. Martins, A. S. de Andrade, A. Bottion, D. P. da Silva, and K. C. A. de Souza, “PV solar energy electronics processing system operating at the MPP for commercial refrigerator supply applications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference (IEEE-PESC '05), vol. 1, pp. 217–223, 2005.
  13. M. A. El-Shibini and H. H. Rakha, “Maximum power point tracking technique,” in Proceedings of Integrating Research, Industry and Education in Energy and Communication Engineering Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON '89), pp. 21–24, April 1989. View at Scopus
  14. D. Shmilovitz, “On the control of photovoltaic maximum power point tracker via output parameters,” IEE Proceedings: Electric Power Applications, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 239–248, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. N. Femia, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, and M. Vitelli, “Optimization of perturb and observe maximum power point tracking method,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 963–973, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. M. Casaro and D. C. Martins, “Application of the three-phase series resonant converter in a dual-stage inverter operating without specific sensor to perform the MPPT,” in Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IEEE-IECON '07), pp. 1650–1655, November 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. F. Coelho, F. Concer, and D. C. Martins, “A study of the basic DC-DC converters applied in maximum power point tracking,” in Proceedings of the Brazilian Power Electronics Conference (COBEP '09), pp. 673–678, October 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. Esram and P. L. Chapman, “Comparison of photovoltaic array maximum power point tracking techniques,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 439–449, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. A. G. de Brito, L. G. Junior, L. P. Sampaio, G. A. e Melo, and C. A. Canesin, “Main maximum Power point tracking strategies intended for photovoltaic,” in Proceedings of the Brazilian Power Electronics Conference (COBEP '11), pp. 524–530, 2011.
  20. R. F. Coelho, F. M. Concer, and D. C. Martins, “A simplified analysis of DC-DC converters applied as maximum power point tracker in photovoltaic systems,” in Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG '10), pp. 29–34, June 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. F. Coelho, F. M. Concer, and D. C. Martins, “A MPPT approach based on temperature measurements applied in PV systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies (ICSET '10), December 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. C. Cavalcanti, K. C. Oliveira, G. M. S. Azevedo, and F. A. S. Neves, “Comparative study of maximum power point tracking techniques for photovoltaic systems,” Brazilian Journal of Power Electronics, vol. 12, pp. 163–171, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  23. R. F. Coelho, F. M. Concer, and D. C. Martins, “Analytical and experimental analysis of DC-DC converters in photovoltaic maximum power point tracking applications,” in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IEEE-IECON '10), pp. 2778–2783, November 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. M. Carrasco, L. G. Franquelo, J. T. Bialasiewicz et al., “Power-electronic systems for the grid integration of renewable energy sources: a survey,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1002–1016, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. M. Casaro and D. C. Martins, “Electronic processing of the photovoltaic solar energy in grid connected systems,” Controle y Automacao, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 159–172, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. Kasa, T. Iida, and L. Chen, “Flyback inverter controlled by sensorless current MPPT for photovoltaic power system,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 1145–1152, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Q. Li and P. Wolfs, “A review of the single phase photovoltaic module integrated converter topologies with three different DC link configurations,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1320–1333, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Calais, J. Myrzik, T. Spooner, and V. G. Agelidis, “Inverters for single-phase grid connected photovoltaic systems—an overview,” in Proceedings of the 33rd Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (IEEE-PESC '02), pp. 1995–2000, June 2002. View at Scopus
  29. S. B. Kjaer, J. K. Pedersen, and F. Blaabjerg, “Power inverter topologies for photovoltaic modules—a review,” in Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Annual Meeting and World Conference on Industrial Applications of Electrical Energy (IAS '02), pp. 782–788, October 2002. View at Scopus
  30. B. Yang, W. Li, Y. Zhao, and X. He, “Design and analysis of a grid-connected photovoltaic power system,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 992–1000, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. A. Sabaté, V. Vlatkovic, R. B. Ridley, F. C. Lee, and B. H. Cho, “Design considerations for high-voltage high-power full-bridge zero-voltage-switched PWM converter,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (IEEE-APEC '90), pp. 275–284, 1990.
  32. R. Redl, N. O. Sokal, and L. Balogh, “A novel soft-switching full-bridge DC/DC converter: analysis, design considerations, and experimental results at 1.5 kW, 100 kHz,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 408–418, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. Redl, L. Balogh, and D. W. Edwards, “Optimum ZVS full-bridge DC/DC converter with PWM phase-shift control analysis design considerations, and the experimental results,” in Proceedings of the 9th Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, vol. 1, pp. 159–165, February 1994. View at Scopus
  34. K. C. A. de Souza, O. H. Gonçalves, and D. C. Martins, “Study and optimization of two dc-dc power structures used in a grid-connected photovoltaic system,” in Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (IEEE-PESC '06), pp. 1–5, June 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. F. Kocybik and K. N. Bateson, “Digital control of a ZVS full-bridge DC-DC converter,” in Proceedings of the 10th Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference, vol. 2, pp. 687–693, March 1995. View at Scopus
  36. Y. Jang and M. M. Jovanović, “A new family of full-bridge ZVS converters,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 701–708, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. C. A. de Souza, W. M. dos Santos, and D. C. Martins, “A single-phase active power filter based in a two stages grid-connected PV system,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IEEE-IECON '09), pp. 114–119, November 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. C. A. de Souza, W. M. dos Santos, and D. C. Martins, “Active and reactive power control in a single-phase grid-connected PV system with optimization of the ferrite core volume,” International Review of Electrical Engineering, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 3142–3151, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  39. J. P. Lee, B. D. Min, T. J. Kim, D. W. Yoo, and J. Y. Yoo, “A novel topology for photovoltaic DC/DC full-bridge converter with flat efficiency under wide PV module voltage and load range,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 2655–2663, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. D. Ziogas, A. R. Prasad, and S. Manias, “Analysis and design of a three-phase off-line DC/DC converter with high frequency isolation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference Record of the Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS '88), pp. 813–820, 1988.
  41. R. W. A. A. de Doncker, D. M. Divan, and M. H. Kheraluwala, “A three-phase soft-switched high-power-density DC/DC converter for high-power applications,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 63–73, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Jacobs, A. Averberg, and R. de Doncker, “A novel three-phase DC/DC converter for high-power applications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 35th Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC '04), pp. 1861–1867, June 2004. View at Scopus
  43. M. M. Casaro and D. C. Martins, “Application of the three-phase series resonant converter in a dual-stage inverter operating without specific sensor to perform the MPPT,” in Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp. 1650–1655, November 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. M. Casaro and D. C. Martins, “Grid-connected PV system: introduction to behavior matching,” in Proceedings of the 39th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 951–956, June 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. M. Casaro and D. C. Martins, “Paths to sustainable energy,” in PV Solar Energy Conversion Using the Behavior Matching Technique, J. Nathwani and A. W. Ng, Eds., chapter 11, pp. 199–210, InTech, Vienna, Austria, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  46. S. B. Kjaer, J. K. Pedersen, and F. Blaabjerg, “A review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1292–1306, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. Li, F. Zhuo, J. Liu et al., “Study on unified control of grid-connected generation and harmonic compensation in dual-stage high-capacity PV system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (IEEE-ECCE '09), pp. 3336–3342, September 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. M. Casaro and D. C. Martins, “Architectural and control contributions for PV grid-connected systems applying dual-stage inverters,” in Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (IEEE-ICECS '07), pp. 861–864, December 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. N. Femia, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, and M. Vitelli, “A technique for improving P&O MPPT performances of double-stage grid-connected photovoltaic systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 4473–4482, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. D. Cruz Martins and R. Demonti, “Grid connected PV system using two energy processing stages,” in Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 1649–1652, May 2002. View at Scopus
  51. M. M. Casaro and D. C. Martins, “Behavior Matching as fundamental feature to obtain a modified dual-stage inverter,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE '08), pp. 2426–2431, July 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. M. Casaro and D. C. Martins, “Grid-connected PV system using a three-phase modified dual-stage inverter,” in Proceedings of the Brazilian Power Electronics Conference (COBEP '09), pp. 167–173, October 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, and M. Vitelli, “A multivariable perturb-and-observe maximum power point tracking technique applied to a single-stage photovoltaic inverter,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 76–84, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. Nasr, A. Ali, M. H. Saied, M. Z. Mostafa, and T. M. Abdel-Moneim, “A survey of maximum ppt technique of PV systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Energy Tech, May 2012.
  55. F. Liu, Y. Kang, Y. Zhang, and S. Duan, “Comparison of P&O and hill climbing MPPT methods for grid-connected PV converter,” in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (IEEE-ICIEA '08), pp. 804–807, June 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. N. Femia, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, and M. Vitelli, “Optimizing duty-cycle perturbation of P&O MPPT technique,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (IEEE-PESC '04), vol. 3, pp. 1939–1944, June 2004. View at Scopus
  57. G. M. S. Azevedo, M. C. Cavalcanti, K. C. Oliveira, F. A. S. Neves, and Z. D. Lins, “Evaluation of maximum power point tracking methods for grid connected photovoltaic systems,” in Proceedings of the 39th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 1456–1462, June 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. S. Kumari, D. C. S. Babu, and A. K. Babu, “Design and analysis of P&O and IP&O MPPT technique for photovoltaic system,” International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 2174–2180, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  59. S. Campbell and H. A. Toliyat, “DSP-based electromechanical motion control,” in Clarke's and Park's Transformations, Chapter 10, pp. 209–222, CRC Press, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  60. M. F. Schonardie and D. C. Martins, “Application of the dq0 transformation in the three-phase grid-connected PV systems with active and reactive power control,” in Proceedings of the Annual IEEE International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies (IEEE-ICSET '08), pp. 18–23, November 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. W. Xiao, M. G. J. Lind, W. G. Dunford, and A. Capel, “Real-time identification of optimal operating points in photovoltaic power systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1017–1026, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. Y. Tsuno, Y. Hishikawa, and K. Kurokawa, “Temperature and irradiance dependence of the I-V curves of various kinds of solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Photovoltaic Science & Engineering Conference (PVSEC '05), pp. 422–423, 2005.
  63. M. G. Villalva, J. R. Gazoli, and E. R. Filho, “Comprehensive approach to modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1198–1208, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. F. Coelho, F. M. Concer, and D. C. Martins, “A proposed photovoltaic module and array mathematical modeling destined to simulation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (IEEE-ISIE '09), pp. 1624–1629, July 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. A. R. Hernanz, J. J. C. Martin, I. Z. Belver, J. L. Lesaka, E. Z. Guerrero, and E. P. Perez, “Modelling of photovoltaic module,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Renewable Energy an Power Quality, 2010.
  66. K. H. Hussein, I. Muta, T. Hoshino, and M. Osakada, “Maximum photovoltaic power tracking: an algorithm for rapidly changing atmospheric conditions,” IEE Proceedings: Generation, Transmission and Distribution, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 59–64, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. N. Mutoh, M. Ohno, and T. Inoue, “A method for MPPT control while searching for parameters corresponding to weather conditions for PV generation systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1055–1065, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. A. Gow and C. D. Manning, “Development of a photovoltaic array model for use in power-electronics simulation studies,” IEE Proceedings on Electric Power Applications, vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 193–200, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. C. Hua, J. Lin, and C. Shen, “Implementation of a DSP-controlled photovoltaic system with peak power tracking,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 99–107, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. R. Prasad, P. D. Ziogas, and S. Manias, “A three-phase resonant PWM DC-DC converter,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC '91), pp. 463–473, June 1991. View at Scopus
  71. A. K. S. Bhat and L. Zheng, “Analysis and design of a three-phase LCC-type resonant converter,” in Proceedings of the 27th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 252–258, January 1996. View at Scopus
  72. D. S. Oliveira Jr. and I. Barbi, “A three-phase ZVS PWM DC/DC converter with asymmetrical duty cycle associated with a three-phase version of the hybridge rectifier,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 354–360, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. M. Casaro, Modified dual-stages three-phase inverter applied in the photovoltaic solar energy processing in grid-connected systems [Ph.D. thesis], Federal University of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2009.
  74. M. M. Casaro and D. C. Martins, “Behavior matching technique applied to a three-phase grid-connected PV system,” in Prroceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies (ICSET '08), pp. 12–17, November 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. F. Blaabjerg, R. Teodorescu, Z. Chen, and M. Liserre, “Power converters and control of renewable energy systems,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Performance Engineering (ICPE '04), pp. I2–I20, 2004.
  76. J. Selvaraj and N. A. Rahim, “Multilevel inverter for grid-connected PV system employing digital PI controller,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 149–158, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  77. D. G. Holmes, “The general relationship between regular-sampled pulse-width-modulation and space vector modulation for hard switched converter,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference Record of the Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IEEE-IAS '92), pp. 1002–1009, 1992.
  78. F. Blaabjerg, S. Freysson, H. H. Hansen, and S. Hansen, “New optimized space vector modulation strategy for a component minimized voltage source inverter,” in Proceedings of the 10th Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference (APEC '95), pp. 577–585, March 1995. View at Scopus
  79. T. Halkosaari and H. Tuusa, “Optimal vector modulation of a pwm current source converter according to minimal switching losses,” IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 127–132, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  80. K. Zhou and D. Wang, “Relationship between space-vector modulation and three-phase carrier-based PWM: a comprehensive analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 186–196, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. F. A. B. Batista and I. Barbi, “Space vector modulation applied to three-phase three-switch two-level unidirectional PWM rectifier,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2245–2252, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. Lega, M. Mengoni, G. Serra, A. Tani, and L. Zarri, “General theory of space vector modulation for five-phase inverters,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE '08), pp. 237–244, July 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics Handbook, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 2001.
  84. Y. Jung, J. So, G. Yu, and J. Choi, “Improved perturbation and observation method (IP&O) of MPPT control for photovoltaic power systems,” in Proceedings of the 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 1788–1791, January 2005. View at Scopus
  85. W. J. A. Teulings, J. C. Marpinard, A. Capel, and D. O'Solluivan, “New maximum power point tracking system,” in Proceedings of the 24th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference, pp. 833–838, June 1993. View at Scopus
  86. P. Midya, P. T. Krein, R. J. Turnbull, R. Reppa, and J. Kimball, “Dynamic maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic applications,” in Proceedings of the 27th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 1710–1716, January 1996. View at Scopus
  87. Y. C. Kuo, T. J. Liang, and J. F. Chen, “Novel maximum-power-point-tracking controller for photovoltaic energy conversion system,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 594–601, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. T. Y. Kim, H. G. Ahn, S. K. Park, and Y. K. Lee, “A novel maximum power point tracking control for photovoltaic power system under rapidly changing solar radiation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics Proceedings (ISIE '01), pp. 1011–1014, June 2001. View at Scopus
  89. X. Liu and L. A. C. Lopes, “An improved perturbation and observation maximum power point tracking algorithm for PV arrays,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 2005–2010, June 2004. View at Scopus
  90. C. Dorofte, U. Borup, and F. Blaabjerg, “A combined two-method MPPT control scheme for grid-connected photovoltaic systems,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, pp. 1–10, September 2005. View at Scopus
  91. C. Jaen, C. Moyano, X. Santacruz, J. Pou, and A. Arias, “Overview of maximum power point tracking control techniques used in photovoltaic systems,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (IEEE-ICECS '08), pp. 1099–1102, September 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. R. Faranda, S. Leva, and V. Maugeri, “MPPT techniques for PV systems: energetic and cost comparison,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting—Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, pp. 1–6, Pittsburgh, Pa, USA, July 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. Lopez-Seguel, S. I. Seleme, P. Donoso-Garcia, L. F. Morais, P. Cortizo, and M. S. Mendes, “Comparison of MPPT approaches in autonomous photovoltaic energy supply system using DSP,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (IEEE-ICIT '10), pp. 1149–1154, March 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. V. V. R. Scarpa, G. Spiazzi, and S. Buso, “Low complexity MPPT technique exploiting the effect of the PV cell series resistance,” in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (IEEE-APEC '08), pp. 1958–1964, February 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. N. Femia, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, and M. Vitelli, “Optimizing sampling rate of P&O MPPT technique,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC '04), pp. 1945–1949, June 2004. View at Scopus
  96. M. M. Casaro and D. C. Martins, “New method of MPPT application for dual-stage inverters,” in Proceedings of the Brazilian Power Electronics Conference, pp. 676–681, 2007.
  97. H. F. M. Lopez, R. C. Viero, C. Zollmann et al., “Analog signal processing for photovoltaic panels grid-tied by Zeta converter,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Electrical Power and Energy Conference (IEEE-EPEC '09), pp. 1–6, October 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. D. C. Martins and R. Demonti, “Interconnection of a photovoltaic panels array to a single-phase utility line from a static conversion system,” in Proceedings of the 31st Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, vol. 3, pp. 1207–1211, 2000.
  99. D. Cruz Martins and R. Demonti, “Photovoltaic energy processing for utility connected system,” in Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IEEE-IECON '01), vol. 2, pp. 1292–1296, December 2001. View at Scopus
  100. S. B. Kjaer, J. K. Pedersen, and F. Blaabjerg, “Power inverter topologies for photovoltaic modules—a review,” in Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Conference Record of the Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IEEE-IAS '02), vol. 2, pp. 782–788, October 2002. View at Scopus
  101. D. C. Martins, R. Demonti, and R. Rütter, “Analysis of utility interactive photovoltaic generation system using a single power static inverter,” in Proceeding of the 28th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE-PVSC '00), pp. 1719–1722, 2000.
  102. D. Borgonovo, Modeling and Control of three-phase PWM rectifiers using the park transformation [M.S. thesis], Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil, 2001.