Table of Contents
ISRN Pediatrics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 435976, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/435976
Research Article

Determinants of Oxygen Therapy in Childhood Pneumonia in a Resource-Constrained Region

1Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
2Medical Research Council, Gambian Unit, Atlantic Boulevard, Fajara, P.O. Box 273, Banjul, Gambia

Received 7 April 2013; Accepted 13 May 2013

Academic Editors: C. Casey, V. M. Di Ciommo, and G. D. Overturf

Copyright © 2013 Bankole Peter Kuti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. C. Sectish and C. G. Prober, “Pneumonia,” in Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, R. E. Behrman, R. M. Kliegman, and H. B. Jensen, Eds., pp. 1432–1436, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 17th edition, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  2. I. Rudan, L. Tomaskovic, C. Boschi-Pinto, and H. Campbell, “Global estimate of the incidence of clinical pneumonia among children under five years of age,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 82, no. 12, pp. 895–903, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. G. Williams, E. Gouws, C. Boschi-Pinto, J. Bryce, and C. Dye, “Estimates of world-wide distribution of child deaths from acute respiratory infections,” Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 25–32, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. T. Cutts, S. M. A. Zaman, G. Enwere et al., “Efficacy of nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease in Gambia. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 365, pp. 1139–146, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. B. M. Greenwood, A. M. Greenwood, A. K. Bradley, S. Tulloch, R. Hayes, and F. S. Oldfield, “Deaths in infancy and early childhood in a well-vaccinated, rural, West African population,” Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 91–99, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Mulholland, “Childhood pneumonia mortality—a permanent global emergency,” The Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9583, pp. 285–289, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Ayieko and M. English, “Case management of childhood pneumonia in developing countries,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 432–440, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. WHO, “WHO programme for the control of acute respiratory infections. Acute respiratory infections in children: case management in small hospitals in developing countries,” Tech. Rep. 5, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  9. S. Usen, M. Weber, K. Mulholland et al., “Clinical predictors of hypoxaemia in Gambian children with acute lower respiratory tract infection: prospective cohort study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 318, no. 7176, pp. 86–91, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Usen and M. Weber, “Clinical signs of hypoxaemia in children with acute lower respiratory infection: indicators of oxygen therapy,” International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 505–510, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Laman, P. Ripa, J. Vince, and N. Tefuarani, “Can clinical signs predict hypoxaemia in Papua New Guinean children with moderate and severe pneumonia?” Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 23–27, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. E. Onyango, M. C. Steinhoff, E. M. Wafula, S. Wariua, J. Musia, and J. Kitonyi, “Hypoxaemia in young Kenyan children with acute lower respiratory infection,” British Medical Journal, vol. 306, no. 6878, pp. 612–615, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. J. Bennett and R. W. Steele, “Pediatric Pneumonia,” May 2011, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/967822-overview.
  14. R. Rodriguez-Roisin and J. Roca, “Update '96 on pulmonary gas exchange pathophysiology in pneumonia,” Seminars in Respiratory Infections, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. E. West, T. Goetghebuer, P. Milligan, E. K. Mulholland, and M. W. Weber, “Long-term morbidity and mortality following hypoxaemic lower respiratory tract infection in Gambian children,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 144–148, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. K. Mulholland, L. Smith, I. Carneiro, H. Becherc, and D. Lehmann, “Equity and child-survival strategies,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 399–407, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Basse Demographic Data base. The Gambia, January 2011, http://www.accessgambia.com/information/basse-santa-su.html.
  18. G. A. Oyedeji, “Socioeconomic and cultural background of hospitalized children in Ilesa,” The Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 13, pp. 111–118, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  19. K. Park, “Environment and Health,” in Park's Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, pp. 521–536, Banarasidas Bhanot and Company, Jabalpur, India, 16th edition, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  20. T. Cherian, E. K. Mulholland, J. B. Carlin et al., “Standardized interpretation of paediatric chest radiographs for the diagnosis of pneumonia in epidemiological studies,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 353–359, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. F. Philbin, R. Garg, K. Danisa et al., “The relationship between cardiothoracic ratio and left ventricular ejection fraction in congestive heart failure,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 158, no. 5, pp. 501–506, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. Tiewsoh, R. Lodha, R. M. Pandey, S. Broor, M. Kalaivani, and S. K. Kabra, “Factors determining the outcome of children hospitalized with severe pneumonia,” BMC Pediatrics, vol. 9, no. 1, article 15, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. M. Nascimento-Carvalho, H. Rocha, R. Santos-Jesus, and Y. Benguigui, “Childhood pneumonia: clinical aspects associated with hospitalization or death,” The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 22–28, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. A. Margolis, T. W. Ferkol, S. Marsocci et al., “Accuracy of the clinical examination in detecting hypoxemia in infants with respiratory illness,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 552–560, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus