International Scholarly Research Notices / 2013 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Predictors of Emotional Distress and Wellbeing 2–5 Years After Stroke

Table 2

Association between explanatory variables and wellbeing and emotional distress at followup.

Explanatory variables (predictors) ( ) Wellbeing1
(GHQ-30 < 6)
β ( )
Distress1
(HADS > 10)
β ( )

Demographic variablesAge ( )−0.71 (0.21)0.00 (1.00)
Sex (0 = female) −0.36 (0.48)0.70 (0.17)
Education ( years)0.33 (0.51)−0.12 (0.81)

Medical
variables
Stroke type (0 = ischaemic infarction)0.01 (0.99)−0.55 (0.37)
Side of lesion (0 = left hemisphere)0.19 (0.71)0.87 (0.09)
Time since stroke onset ( years)0.67 (0.20)0.41 (0.43)
Time since stroke onset (0 = 2.5–4 years)0.32 (0.52)0.09 (0.86)

ADL variablesMRS (0 = Modified Rankin Scale < 3)0.54 (0.30)0.24 (0.65)
Verbal communication (0 = independent)0.62 (0.26)0.22 (0.68)
Toileting (0 = independent)0.60 (0.43)1.85 (0.03)
Dressing (0 = independent)0.43 (0.46)1.15 (0.05)
Mobility (0 = independent)1.54 (0.06)1.60 (0.03)

CognitionMild cognitive deficits (0 = no)0.40 (0.45)0.48 (0.38)
Moderate cognitive deficits2 (0 = no)0.36 (0.48)−0.08 (0.88)
Severe cognitive deficits2 (0 = no)−0.59 (0.33)0.09 (0.87)
Global cognitive deficits (0 = no)1.03 (0.23)0.99 (0.20)
General cognitive deficits3 (0 = no)0.01 (0.99)0.53 (0.31)
Nonverbal problem solving: Block Assembly ( )−0.08 (0.16)0.13 (0.04)
Raven’s Colored Matrices ( )−0.02 (0.17)−0.02 (0.20)

Psycho
social variables
at followup
Marital status (0 = married/cohabitant)−0.39 (0.48)−0.33 (0.57)
Occupation (0 = work; 1 = pension)0.90 (0.13)−0.47 (0.41)
Driver’s licence (0 = revoked)−0.96 (0.06)0.08 (0.88)
Proxy support (0 = satisfied with)1.95 (0.08)0.41 (0.59)
Community services (0 = satisfied with)−0.55 (0.30)0.00 (1.00)

Poor wellbeing = 0. Not emotionally distressed = 0.
2As moderate and severe deficits are dummy variables, persons with “not” moderate or severe cognitive deficits have either milder or more severe deficits. For definitions, see Table 1.
3Cognitive functions dichotomized in “mild” or “severe” (0) or “moderate” or “global” (1) deficits.
Note. Significant variables ( ) and values <0.2 are bold.

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