International Scholarly Research Notices / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Adverse Health Effects Associated with Increased Activity at Kīlauea Volcano: A Repeated Population-Based Survey

Table 1

Demographic and health characteristics of the study groups.

Participant characteristicsUnexposed (n = 110)Vog exposed (n = 110)P value

Age, years (SD)59.0 (19.5)56.4 (17.3) 0.31
Body-mass index, (SD) 26.0 (6.0)27.4 (5.4)0.48
 ≥25 n (%)66 (60)72 (65)
Gender n (%) 0.34
 Female66 (60)59 (54)
 Male44 (40)51 (46)
Ethnicity n (%)0.03
 Filipino38 (35)35 (32)
 White30 (27)37 (34)
 Hawaiian11 (10)23 (21)
 Japanese20 (18)7 (6)
 Others11 (10)8 (7)
Residency, years (SD)39.4 (24.1)32.0 (21.1)0.02
Lifetime residency n (%)(45)(35)0.11
Employment n (%)0.35
 Working40 (36)45 (42)
 Unemployed 11 (10)20 (15)
 Retired53 (48)37 (36)
 Disabled 6 (5) 8 (7)
Education, years (SD)12.62 (2.7)12.65 (2.4)0.93
Occupational exposures n (%)
 Sugarcane28 (26)20 (19)0.22
 Macadamia Nuts16 (15)28 (26)0.05
 Dust53 (49)60 (56)0.27
Age of home, years (SD)41.8 (20.2)40.7 (24.8)0.72
Plantation-style house n (%)32 (29)34 (31)0.77
Health insurance n (%)103 (94)95 (90)0.06
Smoking status n (%)0.64
 Never53 (49)48 (44)
 Former40 (36)40 (36)
 Current17 (16)22 (20)
Medication usage n (%)
 Respiratory15 (14)10 (9)0.30
 Antihypertensive48 (44)49 (45)0.84
Subjective view of health n (%)0.35
  “Excellent”10 (9)12 (11)
  “Very good”37 (34)32 (29)
  “Average”56 (51)50 (46)
  “Worse than average” 5 (4) 11 (10)
 “Very poor” 2 (2) 5 (4)
Interviews English/Tagalog n 103/7103/71.0

Note. All participants were ≥20 years with a minimum of 7 years residency in the study areas.

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