International Scholarly Research Notices / 2013 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Adverse Health Effects Associated with Increased Activity at Kīlauea Volcano: A Repeated Population-Based Survey

Table 2

Prevalence and exposure odds ratio of cardiorespiratory symptoms in adult residents of Hawai’i Island, USA.

Participant self-reported symptomsUnexposed group
(%)
Vog exposed group
(%)Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted ORa
(95% CI)

Chest pain20.029.4 1.66 (0.89–3.10) 1.61 (0.85–3.08)
Coughb on most days for 3 consecutive or more months/year15.456.8 7.23 (3.52–14.84) 8.18 (3.81–17.58)
 Restricted to nonsmokers11.847.7 6.81 (3.20–14.49) 7.30 (3.32–16.03)
Dry cough at night for >14 days13.630.0 2.71 (1.38–5.36) 2.93 (1.45–5.91)
 Restricted to nonsmokers14.027.3 2.31 (1.09–4.89) 2.56 (1.17–5.57)
Headaches often20.031.8 1.87 (1.01–3.46) 1.79 (0.91–3.51)
Phlegm on most days for 3 consecutive or more months/year14.539.1 3.77 (1.96–7.25) 3.61 (1.83–7.11)
 Restricted to nonsmokers10.833.0 4.08 (1.85–9.01) 4.02 (1.77–9.10)
Cough and Phlegm combined10.034.5 4.75 (2.27–9.92) 4.78 (2.21–10.32)
 Restricted to nonsmokers6.528.4 5.75 (2.23–14.85) 5.86 (2.21–15.57)
Rhinorrhea frequently12.735.5 3.77 (1.90–7.46) 4.66 (2.26–9.64)
Sinus/nasal congestion often12.736.7 3.98 (2.01–7.87) 4.75 (2.32–9.76)
SOB without exertion12.832.7 3.30 (1.66–6.57) 3.53 (1.70–7.32)
 Restricted to nonsmokers12.233.0 4.03 (1.82–8.91) 4.33 (1.88–10.01)
Skin irritation7.326.4 4.52 (1.96–10.42) 5.12 (2.15–12.20)
Sore or dry throat frequently10.940.9 5.65 (2.78–11.50) 6.31 (3.00–13.29)
Wheeze within the last 12 months28.238.3 1.58 (0.90–2.80) 1.63 (0.89–2.98)
Wheeze most days or nights7.319.4 3.08 (1.30–7.30) 3.06 (1.24–7.59)
Wheeze during or after exercise9.317.8 2.12 (0.93–4.80) 2.07 (0.88–4.87)
Symptoms while outdoors:
 Cough1.835.830.09 (7.04–128.58)32.95 (7.56–143.58)
 Eye irritation2.748.633.76 (10.09–112.89)40.22 (11.59–139.64)
 Rhinorrhea and sinus congestion0.930.046.29 (6.20–345.72)53.11 (7.0–401.93)
 Shortness of breath1.821.214.31 (3.28–62.39)15.56 (3.52–68.74)
 Wheezing1.819.613.06 (2.98–57.27)14.95 (3.30–67.70)

Note. : prevalence; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; and SOB: shortness of breath. aAdjusted for age, gender, race, smoking status, BMI, and occupational dust exposure. bNonmedicated: participants not taking medications with side effect of cough.

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