Review Article

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) and Angiotensin-Receptor Blockers (ARBs) in Patients at High Risk of Cardiovascular Events: A Meta-Analysis of 10 Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trials

Table 1

Baseline characteristic of patients in trials.


Patient typeHigh riskCVDCADCADCADCADHigh riskHigh riskCVDHigh risk
FU (yr)
ACE/ARB doserami 10perin 8quina 20perin 8ena 20tran 4val 40–160tel 80tel 80val 80–160
Mean age (yr)66645860586465676664
BP (mmHg)139/79147/86123/74137/82129/78133/78139/81141/82144/84140/83
Sex (F %)27301815261834433651
% CAD80161001001001003475NS24
% CVD11100NS347NS221003
% DM3812161218172036280
% HBP47484727604688767478
% Smoking142022NS261517102111

Yr: year; F: female; ACE: angiotensin converting enzyme; ARB: angiotensin receptor blocker; CAD: coronary artery disease; CVD: cerebrovascular disease; PAD: peripheral arterial disease; DM: diabetes mellitus; HBP: hypertension; NS: not significant; rami: ramipril; perin: perindopril; quina: quinapril; ena: enalapril; tran: trandolapril; val: valsartan; tel: telmisartan.
HOPE: heart outcomes prevention evaluation; PROGRESS: perindopril protection against recurrent stroke study; QUIET: quinapril ischemic event trial; EUROPA: European trial on reduction of cardiac events with perindopril in stable coronary artery disease; CAMELOT: comparison of amlodipine versus enalapril to limit occurrences of thrombosis; PEACE: prevention of events with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; JIKEI: valsartan in a Japanese population with hypertension and other cardiovascular disease; TRANSCEND: telmisartan randomized assessment study in ace-intolerant subjects with cardiovascular disease; PROFESS: telmisartan to prevent recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events; NAVIGATOR: nateglinide and valsartan in impaired glucose tolerance outcomes research.