Table of Contents
ISRN Oncology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 503249, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/503249
Research Article

Esophageal Cancer, the Topmost Cancer at MTRH in the Rift Valley, Kenya, and Its Potential Risk Factors

1Department of Immunology, Moi University, Kenya
2Department of Biochemistry, Moi University, Kenya
3Department of Behavioral Science, Moi University, Kenya
4Imperial College, London, UK

Received 8 September 2013; Accepted 8 October 2013

Academic Editors: S. T. Hedau and Z. Suo

Copyright © 2013 Kirtika Patel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, “Global cancer statistics, 2002,” Ca-A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 74–108, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. Berrino, M. Sant, A. Verdecchia, R. Capacaccia, T. Hakulinen, and J. Steve, Survival of Cancer Patients in Europe-the Eurocare Study, IARC, Lyon, France, 1995.
  3. J. Kmet and E. Mahboubi, “Esophageal cancer in the Caspian littoral of Iran: initial studies,” Science, vol. 175, no. 4024, pp. 846–853, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. Mahboubi, J. Kmet, P. J. Cook, N. E. Day, P. Ghadirian, and S. Salmasizadeh, “Esophageal cancer studies in the Caspian Littoral of Iran: the Caspian Cancer Registry,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 69, pp. 225–235, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  5. G. D. Stoner and A. K. Rustigi, “Biology of esophageal squamous cell carinoma,” in Gastrointestinal Cancers: Biology, Diagnosis and Therapy, A. K. Rustgi, Ed., pp. 141–148, Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  6. N. Munoz and N. Day, “Esophageal cancer,” in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, D. Schottenfeld and J. F. Fraumeni, Eds., pp. 681–706, Oxford Universtity Press, New York, NY, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  7. D. Fleischer and N. Haddad, “Neoplasma of the oesophagus,” in The Oesophagus, D. Castell and J. Richter, Eds., pp. 235–259, Lippincott, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. M. Mir, N. A. Dar, S. Gochhait, S. A. Zargar, A. G. Ahangar, and R. N. K. Bamezai, “p53 mutation profile of squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus in Kashmir (India): a high-incidence area,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 62–68, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. M. Parkin, J. Ferlay, M. Hamdi-Chérif et al., “International agency for Research on Cancer, WHO. Cancer of the esophagus,” in Cancer in Africa Epidemiology and Prevention, IARC Press, Lyon, France, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. Tettey, F. Edwin, E. Aniteye et al., “The changing epidemiology of esophageal cancer in sub-Saharan Africa—the case of Ghana,” The Pan African Medical Journal, vol. 13, article 6, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  11. R. K. Parker, S. M. Dawsey, C. C. Abnet, and R. E. White, “Frequent occurrence of esophageal cancer in young people in western Kenya,” Diseases of the Esophagus, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 128–135, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. P. Dawsey, S. Tonui, R. K. Parker et al., “Esophageal cancer in young people: a case series of 109 cases and review of the literature,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 11, Article ID e14080, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. N. Tenge, R. T. Kuremu, N. G. Buziba, K. Patel, and P. A. Were, “Burden and pattern of cancer in western Kenya,” East African Medical Journal, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 7–10, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Wakhisi, K. Patel, N. Buziba, and J. Rotich, “Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya,” African Health Sciences, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 157–163, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. E. White, C. C. Abnet, C. K. Mungatana, and S. M. Dawsey, “Oesophageal cancer: a common malignancy in young people of Bomet District, Kenya,” The Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9331, pp. 462–463, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Y.-Y. Chen, D. A. Antonioli, S. J. Spechler, J. M. Zeroogian, R. K. Goyal, and H. H. Wang, “Gastroesophageal reflux disease versus Helicobacter pylori infection as the cause of gastric carditis,” Modern Pathology, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 950–956, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. K. Cheng, N. E. Day, S. W. Duffy, T. H. Lam, M. Fok, and J. Wong, “Pickled vegetables in the aetiology of oesophageal cancer in Hong Kong Chinese,” The Lancet, vol. 339, no. 8805, pp. 1314–1318, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. S. Chu and G. Y. Li, “Simultaneous occurrence of fumonisin B1 and other mycotoxins in moldy corn collected from the People's Republic of China in regions with high incidences of esophageal cancer,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 847–852, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Srivastava, U. Kapil, T. K. Chattopadhyaya et al., “Nutritional risk factors in carcinoma esophagus,” Nutrition Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 177–185, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. M. Brown, R. Hoover, D. Silverman et al., “Excess incidence of squamous cell esophageal cancer among US black men: role of social class and other risk factors,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 114–122, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. R. Akbari, R. Malekzadeh, D. Nasrollahzadeh et al., “Familial risks of esophageal cancer among the Turkmen population of the Caspian littoral of Iran,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 1047–1051, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. E. Far, A. Aghakhani, R. Hamkar et al., “Frequency of human papillomavirus infection in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Iranian patients,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 58–62, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. Islami, A. Pourshams, D. Nasrollahzadeh et al., “Tea drinking habits and oesophageal cancer in a high risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 338, article b929, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Pütz, A. A. Hartmann, P. R. O. Fontes et al., “TP53 mutation pattern of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas in a high risk area (southern Brazil): role of life style factors,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 99–105, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. I. M. Somdyala, W. F. O. Marasas, F. S. Venter, H. F. Vismer, W. C. A. Gelderblom, and S. A. Swanevelder, “Cancer pattersn in four districts of the Transkei region—1991–1995,” South African Medical Journal, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 144–148, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. R. Wabinga, D. M. Parkin, F. Wabwire-Mangen, and S. Nambooze, “Trends in cancer incidence in Kyadondo County, Uganda, 1960–1997,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 1585–1592, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Ocama, M. M. Kagimu, M. Odida et al., “Factors associated with carcinoma of the oesophagus at Mulago hospital, Uganda,” African Health Sciences, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 80–84, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. V. Kumar, N. Fausto, and A. Abbas, Robbins & Cotran. Pathological Basis of Disease, Elsevier, San Diego, Calif, USA, 7th edition, 2004.
  29. H. Zhang, S.-H. Chen, and Y.-M. Li, “Epidemiological investigation of esophageal carcinoma,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1834–1835, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. De Stefani, N. Munoz, J. Esteve, A. Vasallo, C. G. Victora, and S. Teuchmann, “Mate drinking, alcohol, tobacco, diet, and esophageal cancer in Uruguay,” Cancer Research, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 426–431, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Yu, P. R. Taylor, J.-Y. Li et al., “Retrospective cohort study of risk-factors for esophageal cancer in Linxian, People's Republic of China,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 195–202, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Anon, KMA Annual Scientific Conference. Mombasa, August 2008.
  33. L. M. Brown, R. Hoover, D. Silverman et al., “Excess incidence of squamous cell esophageal cancer among US black men: role of social class and other risk factors,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 114–122, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. SEER, “Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program public use data (1973–1999),” National cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Populations Sciences, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch, 2002.
  35. Anon In Marsabit, water blamed for cancer. Sunday Nation March 29th, 2009.
  36. L. B. Gerson, “Endoscopic mucosal resection for early esophageal cancer-replacement for esophagectomy?” Gastroenterology, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 359–360, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. W. J. Lee, W. Lijinsky, E. F. Heineman, R. S. Markin, D. D. Weisenburger, and M. H. Ward, “Agricultural pesticide use and adenocarcinomas of the stomach and oesophagus,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 743–749, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. “Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans,” in Indoor Air Pollution from Heating and Cooking: Some Solid Fuels and Cooking Oil Fumes 95, vol. 95, IARC Press, Lyon, France, 2006.
  39. K. Straif, R. Baan, Y. Grosse, B. Secretan, F. El Ghissassi, and V. Cogliano, “Carcinogenicity of household solid fuel combustion and of high-temperature frying,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 977–978, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. Pan, K. Takahashi, Y. Feng et al., “Nested case-control study of esophageal cancer in relation to occupational exposure to silica and other dusts,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 35, pp. 272–280, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  41. A. Sapkota, V. Gajalakshmi, D. H. Jetly et al., “Indoor air pollution from solid fuels and risk of hypopharyngeal/ laryngeal and lung cancers: a multicentric case—control study from India,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 321–328, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Gallus, A. Alteiri, C. Boseisky, and S. Francheschi, “Cigarrette tar yield and risk of upperdigestive tract,” Annal of Oncology, vol. 14, pp. 209–213, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  43. F. X. Bosch and E. Cardis, “Black tobacco and cancer: introducing an epidemiological review,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1345–1348, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. X. Castellsagué, M. J. Quintana, M. C. Martínez et al., “The role of type of tobacco and type of alcoholic beverage in oral carcinogenesis,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 741–749, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. Bjelke and L. Schuman, “Chewing of tobacco and use of snuff: relationship to cancer of the pancreas and other sites in two prospective studies,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Cancer, Seattle, Wash, USA, 2007.
  46. J. Lagergren, R. Bergström, A. Lindgren, and O. Nyrén, “Human Cancer The role of tobacco, snuff and alcohol use in the aetiology of cancer of the oesophagus and gastric cardia,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 340–346, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  47. P. Boffetta, B. Aagnes, E. Weiderpass, and A. Andersen, “Smokeless tobacco use and risk of cancer of the pancreas and other organs,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 992–995, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Lee, D.-C. Wu et al., “Independent and combined effects of alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and betel quid chewing on the risk of esophageal cancer in Taiwan,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 475–482, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. Launoy, C. H. Milan, J. Faivre, P. Pienkowski, C. I. Milan, and M. Gignoux, “Alcohol, tobacco and oesophageal cancer: effects of the duration of consumption, mean intake and current and former consumption,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 1389–1396, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. X. Castellsague, N. Munoz, C. La Vecchia et al., “Re: cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx in nonsmokers who drink alcohol and in nondrinkers who smoke tobacco,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 91, no. 15, pp. 1336–1338, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. La Vecchia and E. Negri, “The role of alcohol in oesophageal cancer in non-smokers, and of tobacco in non-drinkers,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 784–785, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. K. Cheng, S. W. Duffy, N. E. Day, T. H. Lam, S. F. Chung, and P. Badrinath, “Stopping drinking and risk of oesophageal cancer,” British Medical Journal, vol. 310, no. 6987, pp. 1094–1097, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. Zambon, R. Talamini, C. Vecchia et al., “Epidemiology and cancer prevention Smoking, type of alcoholic beverage and squamous-cell esophageal cancer in northern Italy,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 144–149, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  54. W.-Y. Huang, D. M. Winn, L. M. Brown et al., “Alcohol concentration and risk of oral cancer in Puerto Rico,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 157, no. 10, pp. 881–887, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. W. Blot, J. McLaughlin, and J. F. Fraumeni, “Esophageal cancer,” in Cancer: Epidemiology and Prevention, D. Schottenfeld and J. Fraumeni, Eds., pp. 697–706, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  56. D. Jamison, E. R. Bos, R. G. Feachem et al., Disease and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, World Bank Publication, 2006.
  57. S. Chebet and T. Dietz, Climbing the Cliff: A History of the Keiyo, Moi University Press, 2000.
  58. H. Vainio and E. Weiderpass, “Fruit and vegetables in cancer prevention,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 111–142, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. W. J. Darby, K. W. McNutt, and E. N. Todhunter, “Niacin,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 289–297, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. Gopalan, “The contribution of nutrition research to the control of undernutrition: the Indian experience,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 12, pp. 1–17, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. M. Sammon and J. E. Iputo, “Maize meal predisposes to endemic squamous cancer of the oesophagus in Africa: breakdown of esterified linoleic acid to the free form in stored meal leads to increased intragastric PGE2 production and a low-acid reflux,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1431–1436, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. E. W. Sydenham, P. G. Thiel, W. F. O. Marasas, G. S. Shephard, D. J. Van Schalkwyk, and K. R. Koch, “Natural occurrence of some Fusarium mycotoxins in corn from low and high esophageal cancer prevalence areas of the Transkei, Southern Africa,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1900–1903, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. Siddiqi, A. R. Tricker, and R. Preussmann, “The occurrence of preformed N-nitroso compounds in food samples from a high risk area of esophageal cancer in Kashmir, India,” Cancer Letters, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. Sinha, A. J. Cross, B. I. Graubard, M. F. Leitzmann, and A. Schatzkin, “Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 169, no. 6, pp. 562–571, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. L. Le Marchand, T. Donlon, A. Seifried, and L. R. Wilkens, “Red meat intake CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1019–1024, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. P. D. Terry, J. Lagergren, A. Wolk, G. Steineck, and O. Nyrén, “Dietary intake of heterocyclic amines and cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 940–944, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. Hakami, J. Mohtadinia, A. Etemadi et al., “Dietary intake of benzo(a)pyrene and risk of esophageal cancer in north of Iran,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 216–221, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. P. Ghadirian, J. M. Ekoé, and J. P. Thouez, “Food habits and esophageal cancer: an overview,” Cancer Detection and Prevention, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 163–168, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. F. Islami, A. Pourshams, D. Nasrollahzadeh et al., “Tea drinking habits and oesophageal cancer in a high risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 338, article b929, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. F. Kamangar, M. M. Schantz, C. C. Abnet, R. B. Fagundes, and S. M. Dawsey, “High levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mate drinks,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1262–1268, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. M. Lukanich, “Section I. Epideimiology review,” Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 158–166, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  72. F. Kamangar, W. Chow, C. Abnet, and S. Dawsey, “Environmental causes of esophageal cancer,” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 27–57, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  73. H. E. Van Gijssel, L. J. Schild, D. L. Watt et al., “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts determined by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry in human esophageal biopsies taken in 1985,” Mutation Research, vol. 547, no. 1-2, pp. 55–62, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. R. Montero, A. Araujo, P. Carranza et al., “Genotype frequencies of polymorphic GSTM1, GSTT1, and cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 in Mexicans,” Human Biology, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 299–312, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. T. Nieminen, L. N. Frazer, R. Collins, S. Dawsey, C. Abnet, and W. R. Riina, “Alcohol and acetaldehyde in african fermented milk mursik-a possible etiologic factor for high incidence of esophageal cancer in Western Kenya,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 22, pp. 69–75, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  76. A. Hiraki, K. Matsuo, T. Suzuki, T. Kawase, and K. Tajima, “Teeth loss and risk of cancer at 14 common sites in Japanese,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1222–1227, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus