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Figure 3: Schematic diagram of OSM and extracellular matrix remodeling. OSM and other gp130 cytokines are produced by macrophages and T cells and can be regulated by Th1 and Th2 cytokines. OSM, catabolic cytokines (IL-1, TNF, and IL-17), and fibrogenic TGFβ are potent regulators of connective tissue cells (CT cells, which here include fibroblasts, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and epithelial cells) through cell signaling molecules STATs, SMADs, NFkB, and MapKinases (shown in purple). Products expressed include matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), their inhibitors (TIMPs) other enzymes, and components of the ECM. CT cells also express chemokines and adhesion molecules that contribute to inflammatory processes and can be regulated through proliferative, apoptotic, and EMT transition to alter tissue pathology in inflammatory diseases.