Table of Contents
ISRN Organic Chemistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 526173, 6 pages
Research Article

DABCO Catalyzed Synthesis of Xanthene Derivatives in Aqueous Media

Laboratory of Heterocycles, School of Studies in Chemistry & Biochemistry, Vikram University, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh 456010, India

Received 25 January 2013; Accepted 14 February 2013

Academic Editors: V. P. Kukhar, G. Li, J. C. Menéndez, and Z. Wimmer

Copyright © 2013 Pradeep Paliwal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The reaction of 5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione with various heteroarylaldehydes afforded the corresponding heteroaryl substituted xanthene derivatives 1(a–f). The reaction proceeds via the initial Knoevenagel, subsequent Michael, and final heterocyclization reactions using 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as a catalyst in aqueous media. The synthesized heteroaryl substituted xanthenes 1(a–f) reacted with malononitrile to obtain different alkylidenes 2(a–f). Short reaction time, environmentally friendly procedure, avoiding of cumbersome apparatus, and excellent yields are the main advantages of this procedure which makes it more economic than the other conventional methods.