Table of Contents
ISRN Neurology
Volume 2013, Article ID 592398, 8 pages
Research Article

Flutamide Enhances Neuroprotective Effects of Testosterone during Experimental Cerebral Ischemia in Male Rats

1Department of Physiology, Medical School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Enghelab Street, Tehran 1411413137, Iran
2Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Enghelab Street, Tehran 1411413137, Iran

Received 11 November 2012; Accepted 18 December 2012

Academic Editors: A. Arboix, J. Chen, and H. Ovadia

Copyright © 2013 Hamed Fanaei et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Testosterone has been shown to worsen histological and neurological impairment during cerebral ischemia in animal models. Cell culture studies revealed that testosterone is implicated in protecting neural and glial cells against insults, and they started to elucidate testosterone pathways that underlie these protective effects. These studies support the hypothesis that testosterone can be neuroprotective throughout an episode of cerebral ischemia. Therefore, we evaluated the mechanisms underlying the shift between testosterone protective and deleterious effects via block testosterone aromatization and androgen receptors in rats subjected to 60-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion. Fifty rats were divided into five equal groups: gonadally intact male; castrated male; intact male + flutamide; intact male + letrozole; intact male + combination flutamide and letrozole. Our results indicated that castration has the ability to reduce histological damage and to improve neurological score 24 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Moreover, flutamide improved histologic and neurological impairment better than castration. Letrozole induced increases in striatal infarct volume and seizures in gonadally intact rats. Combination of flutamide and letrozole showed that letrozole can reverse beneficial effects of flutamide. In conclusion, it seems that the beneficial effects of flutamide are the prevention of the deleterious effects and enhancement of neuroprotective effects of testosterone during cerebral ischemia.