Table of Contents
ISRN Vascular Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 593461, 5 pages
Review Article

Does Restenosis Still Hamper the Benefit of Carotid Artery Revascularization?

Department of Vascular Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands

Received 29 November 2012; Accepted 13 January 2013

Academic Editors: A. Csaszar and C.-C. Wu

Copyright © 2013 C. J. de Witte et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Both carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) may offer acceptable short-term results in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis. Independent on the type of revascularization, the long-term benefit may be limited by recurrent stenosis, especially after endovascular treatment. Pathophysiological studies suggest that atherosclerotic plaque composition is an independent predictor of restenosis. Identification of certain plaque characteristics could help risk stratify patients in order to decide on the best therapy and minimize the risk of restenosis. Although currently no gold standard exists for the approach of recurrent carotid stenosis, both redo CEA and CAS seem safe therapeutic options. Limited data are available on treatment of recurrent carotid in-stent stenosis. More data are required in order to recommend the best therapy for in-stent restenosis.