Table of Contents
ISRN Virology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 609348, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/609348
Research Article

Conservation of the Nuclear Receptor Response Element in HIV-1 LTRs: A Possible PPAR Response Element?

School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK

Received 26 March 2013; Accepted 24 April 2013

Academic Editors: F. Christ, A. Cid-Arregui, A. Doglio, and C. Torti

Copyright © 2013 Tara Hurst. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. A. Esté and T. Cihlar, “Current status and challenges of antiretroviral research and therapy,” Antiviral Research, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. Tacheny, S. Michel, M. Dieu, L. Payen, T. Arnould, and P. Renard, “Unbiased proteomic analysis of proteins interacting with the HIV-1 5’ LTR sequence: role of the transcription factor Meis,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 40, article e168, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. L. A. Pereira, K. Bentley, A. Peeters, M. J. Churchill, and N. J. Deacon, “A compilation of cellular transcription factor interactions with the HIV-1 LTR promoter,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 663–668, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Battistini, G. Marsili, M. Sgarbanti, B. Ensoli, and J. Hiscott, “IRF regulation of HIV-1 long terminal repeat activity,” Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 27–37, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. A. A. Ladias, “Convergence of multiple nuclear receptor signaling pathways onto the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus-1,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 269, no. 8, pp. 5944–5951, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Montagner, G. Rando, G. Degueurce, N. Leuenberger, L. Michalik, and W. Wahli, “New insights into the role of PPARs,” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 85, pp. 235–243, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  7. A. Ciudin, C. Hernandez, and R. Simó, “Update on cardiovascular safety of PPARgamma agonists and relevance to medicinal chemistry and clinical pharmacology,” Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 12, pp. 585–604, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  8. G. S. Harmon, M. T. Lam, and C. K. Glass, “PPARs and lipid ligands in inflammation and metabolism,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 111, pp. 6321–6340, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  9. A. Yessoufou and W. Wahli, “Multifaceted roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) at the cellular and whole organism levels,” Swiss Medical Weekly, vol. 140, article w13071, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. L. Gearing, M. Gottlicher, M. Teboul, E. Widmark, and J. A. Gustafsson, “Interaction of the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor and retinoid X receptor,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 1440–1444, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. Issemann, R. A. Prince, J. D. Tugwood, and S. Green, “The retinoid X receptor enhances the function of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor,” Biochimie, vol. 75, no. 3-4, pp. 251–256, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. P. Guan, T. Ishizuka, P. C. Chui, M. Lehrke, and M. A. Lazar, “Corepressors selectively control the transcriptional activity of PPARγ in adipocytes,” Genes & Development, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 453–461, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. Viswakarma, Y. Jia, L. Bai et al., “Coactivators in PPAR-regulated gene expression,” PPAR Research, vol. 2010, Article ID 250126, 21 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. V. Perissi and M. G. Rosenfeld, “Controlling nuclear receptors: the circular logic of cofactor cycles,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 542–554, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Schoonjans, B. Staels, and J. Auwerx, “Role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in mediating the effects of fibrates and fatty acids on gene expression,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 907–925, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. D. Tugwood, I. Issemann, R. G. Anderson, K. R. Bundell, W. L. McPheat, and S. Green, “The mouse peroxisome proliferator activated receptor recognizes a response element in the 5' flanking sequence of the rat acyl CoA oxidase gene,” The EMBO Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 433–439, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. J. Woodyatt, K. G. Lambe, K. A. Myers, J. D. Tugwood, and R. A. Roberts, “The peroxisome proliferator (PP) response element upstream of the human acyl CoA oxidase gene is inactive among a sample human population: significance for species differences in response to PPs,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 369–372, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. O. Bardot, M. C. Clemencet, P. Passilly, and N. Latruffe, “The analysis or modified peroxisome proliferator responsive elements of the peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme in transfected HepG2 cells reveals two regulatory motifs,” FEBS Letters, vol. 360, no. 2, pp. 183–186, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. IJpenberg, E. Jeannin, W. Wahli, and B. Desvergne, “Polarity and specific sequence requirements of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor (PPAR)/retinoid X receptor heterodimer binding to DNA. A functional analysis of the malic enzyme gene PPAR response element,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 32, pp. 20108–20117, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Targett-Adams, M. J. McElwee, E. Ehrenborg, M. C. Gustafsson, C. N. Palmer, and J. McLauchlan, “A PPAR response element regulates transcription of the gene for human adipose differentiation-related protein,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1728, no. 1-2, pp. 95–104, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Gupta, T. L. Jetton, R. M. Mortensen, S. Z. Duan, M. Peshavaria, and J. L. Leahy, “In vivo and in vitro studies of a functional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ response element in the mouse pdx-1 promoter,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 283, no. 47, pp. 32462–32470, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Michalik, J. Auwerx, J. P. Berger et al., “International union of pharmacology. LXI. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 726–741, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Castelein, T. Gulick, P. E. Declercq, G. P. Mannaerts, D. D. Moore, and M. I. Baes, “The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor regulates malic enzyme gene expression,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 269, no. 43, pp. 26754–26758, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Juge-Aubry, A. Pernin, T. Favez et al., “DNA binding properties of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtypes on various natural peroxisome proliferator response elements: importance of the 5′-flanking region,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 40, pp. 25252–25259, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. G. Lemay and D. H. Hwang, “Genome-wide identification of peroxisome proliferator response elements using integrated computational genomics,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1583–1587, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Okuno, M. Matsuda, Y. Miyata et al., “Human catalase gene is regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma through a response element distinct from that of mouse,” Endocrine Journal, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 303–309, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. Nakshatri and P. Bhat-Nakshatri, “Multiple parameters determine the specificity of transcriptional response by nuclear receptors HNF-4, ARP-1, PPAR, RAR and RXR through common response elements,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 2491–2499, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J.-F. Michiels, C. Perrin, N. Leccia, D. Massi, P. Grimaldi, and N. Wagner, “PPARβ activation inhibits melanoma cell proliferation involving repression of the Wilms' tumour suppressor WT1,” Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 459, no. 5, pp. 689–703, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Boisvert, S. Côté, A. Vargas et al., “PGJ2 antagonizes NF-κB-induced HIV-1 LTR activation in colonic epithelial cells,” Virology, vol. 380, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. Lu, N. Touzjian, M. Stenzel, T. Dorfman, J. G. Sodroski, and W. A. Haseltine, “Identification of cis-acting repressive sequences within the negative regulatory element of human immunodeficiency virus type 1,” Journal of Virology, vol. 64, no. 10, pp. 5226–5229, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Orchard, N. Perkins, C. Chapman et al., “A novel T-cell protein which recognizes a palindromic sequence in the negative regulatory element of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat,” Journal of Virology, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 3234–3239, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. Marsili, A. L. Remoli, M. Sgarbanti, E. Perrotti, A. Fragale, and A. Battistini, “HIV-1, interferon and the interferon regulatory factor system: an interplay between induction, antiviral responses and viral evasion,” Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 23, pp. 255–270, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  33. G. A. Ferraro, J. P. Monteiro-Cunha, F. M. C. Fernandes et al., “Molecular characterization of long terminal repeat sequences from Brazilian human immunodeficicency virus type 1 isolates,” AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 837–841, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  34. M. Vallejos, F. Carvajal, K. Pino et al., “Functional and structural analysis of the internal ribosome entry site present in the mRNA of natural variants of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 4, Article ID e35031, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. J.-C. Lefebvre, D. March, A. Koechlin, J. Lesimple, and S. Thyss, “Naturally occurring insertion of additional NF-kB motifs and TAR stem loops into HIV-1 LTR, viral amplification and loss of entry into latency,” submitted to Genbank.
  36. K. Hiebenthal-Millow, T. C. Greenough, D. B. Bretttler et al., “Alterations in HIV-1 LTR promoter activity during AIDS progression,” Virology, vol. 317, no. 1, pp. 109–118, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. T. Blackard, B. Renjifo, W. Fawzi et al., “Rapid communication: HIV-1 LTR subtype and perinatal transmission,” Virology, vol. 287, no. 2, pp. 261–265, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Bachu, A. B. Mukthey, R. V. Murali et al., “Sequence insertions in the HIV type 1 subtype c viral promoter predominantly generate an additional NF-κB binding site,” AIDS Research Human Retroviruses, vol. 28, pp. 1362–1368, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  39. A. M. Waterhouse, J. B. Procter, D. M. A. Martin, M. Clamp, and G. J. Barton, “Jalview version 2—a multiple sequence alignment editor and analysis workbench,” Bioinformatics, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1189–1191, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. M. Hanley and G. A. Viglianti, “Nuclear receptor signalling inhibits HIV-1 replication in macrophages through multiple trans-repression mechanisms,” Journal of Virology, vol. 85, no. 20, pp. 10834–10850, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  41. N. S. Tan, L. Michalik, B. Desvergne, and W. Wahli, “Multiple expression control mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their target genes,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, vol. 93, no. 2-5, pp. 99–105, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. V. A. Evans, G. Khoury, S. Saleh, P. U. Cameron, and S. R. Lewin, “HIV persistence: chemokines and their signalling pathways,” Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 23, pp. 151–157, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  43. S. Asin, G. D. Bren, E. M. Carmona, N. J. Solan, and C. V. Paya, “Nf-κB cis-acting motifs of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) long terminal repeat regulate HIV transcription in human macrophages,” Journal of Virology, vol. 75, no. 23, pp. 11408–11416, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. Hoover, J. Mikovits, D. Court, Y.-I. Liu, H.-F. Kung, and Raziuddin, “A nuclear matrix-specific factor that binds a specific segment of the negative regulatory element (NRE) of HIV-1 LTR and inhibits NF-κB activity,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1895–1900, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Q. Long, T. Lei, B. Feng et al., “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increases adiponectin secretion via transcriptional repression of endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein ERp44,” Endocrinology, vol. 151, no. 7, pp. 3195–3203, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. B. E. Sawaya, O. Rohr, D. Aunis, and E. Schaeffer, “Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene transcription by nuclear receptors in human brain cells,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 271, no. 37, pp. 22895–22900, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. M. Hanley, H. L. B. Kiefer, A. C. Schnitzler, J. E. Marcello, and G. A. Viglianti, “Retinoid-dependent restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in monocytes/macrophages,” Journal of Virology, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 2819–2830, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. N. Arhel and F. Kirchhoff, “Host proteins involved in HIV infection: new therapeutic targets,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1802, no. 3, pp. 313–321, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. T. M. Hanley, W. B. Puryear, S. Gummuluru, and G. A. Viglianti, “PPARγ and LXR signaling inhibit dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 capture and trans-infection,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 6, no. 7, Article ID e1000981, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus