Table of Contents
ISRN Nutrition
Volume 2013, Article ID 626414, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/626414
Clinical Study

Markers of Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Are Improved by the Daily Consumption of Almonds or Sunflower Kernels: A Feeding Study

1Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
2Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand

Received 30 October 2012; Accepted 1 December 2012

Academic Editors: Y. Kaufmann, T. Kurose, D. Pei, and Y. Wang

Copyright © 2013 Korina Richmond et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. P. Battisti, J. Palmisano, and W. F. Keane, “Dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Relationships between lipids, kidney disease and cardiovascular disease,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 1174–1181, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. J. Betteridge, “Diabetic dyslipidaemia,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 2, supplement 1, pp. S31–S36, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. J. Drexler, “Lessons learned from landmark trials of type 2 diabetes mellitus and potential applications to clinical practice,” Postgraduate Medicine, pp. 15–26, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. J. Krentz, “Lipoprotein abnormalities and their consequences for patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 5, supplement 1, pp. S19–S27, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Huxley, F. Barzi, and M. Woodward, “Excess risk of fatal coronary heart disease associated with diabetes in men and women: meta-analysis of 37 prospective cohort studies,” British Medical Journal, vol. 332, no. 7533, pp. 73–78, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. A. Creager, T. F. Lüscher, F. Cosentino, and J. A. Beckman, “Diabetes and vascular disease. Pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and medical therapy—part I,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 12, pp. 1527–1532, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. L. Barrett-Connor, B. A. Cohn, D. L. Wingard, and S. L. Edelstein, “Why is diabetes mellitus a stronger risk factor for fatal ischemic heart disease in women than in men? The Rancho Bernardo Study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 265, no. 5, pp. 627–631, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. R. Kaseta, D. F. Skafar, J. L. Ram, S. J. Jacober, and J. R. Sowers, “Cardiovascular disease in the diabetic woman,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 1835–1838, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Packard and A. G. Olsson, “Management of hypercholesterolaemia in the patient with diabetes,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, Supplement, no. 130, pp. 27–32, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. J. Franz, J. P. Bantle, C. A. Beebe et al., “Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 148–198, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. I. Mann, I. De Leeuw, K. Hermansen et al., “Evidence-based nutritional approaches to the treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 373–394, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. New Zealand Guidelines Group, Best Practice Evidence-Based Guideline: Management of Type 2 Diabetes, New Zealand Guidelines Group, Wellington, New Zealand, 2003.
  13. D. K. Banel and F. B. Hu, “Effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis and systematic review,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 56–63, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. E. Fraser, J. Sabate, W. L. Beeson, and T. M. Strahan, “A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. The Adventist Health Study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 152, no. 7, pp. 1416–1424, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. K. Gebauer, S. G. West, C. D. Kay, P. Alaupovic, D. Bagshaw, and P. M. Kris-Etherton, “Effects of pistachios on cardiovascular disease risk factors and potential mechanisms of action: a dose-response study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 651–659, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. E. Griel, Y. Cao, D. D. Bagshaw, A. M. Cifelli, B. Holub, and P. M. Kris-Etherton, “A macadamia nut-rich diet reduces total and LDL-cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 761–767, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. B. Hu and W. C. Willett, “Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 20, pp. 2569–2578, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. H. Kushi, A. R. Folsom, R. J. Prineas, P. J. Mink, Y. Wu, and R. M. Bostick, “Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 334, no. 18, pp. 1156–1162, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Rajaram, K. Burke, B. Connell, T. Myint, and J. Sabaté, “A monounsaturated fatty acid-rich pecan-enriched diet favorably alters the serum lipid profile of healthy men and women,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 9, pp. 2275–2279, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Sabaté, E. Haddad, J. S. Tanzman, P. Jambazian, and S. Rajaram, “Serum lipid response to the graduated enrichment of a Step I diet with almonds: a randomized feeding trial,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 1379–1384, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Torabian, E. Haddad, Z. Cordero-MacIntyre, J. Tanzman, M. L. Fernandez, and J. Sabate, “Long-term walnut supplementation without dietary advice induces favorable serum lipid changes in free-living individuals,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 274–279, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Y. Li, A. M. Brennan, N. M. Wedick, C. Mantzoros, N. Rifai, and F. B. Hu, “Regular consumption of nuts is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease in women with type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 139, no. 7, pp. 1333–1338, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. C. Li, Y. H. Liu, J. F. Liu, W. H. Chang, C. M. Chen, and C. Y. Chen, “Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 474–479, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. C. Lovejoy, M. M. Most, M. Lefevre, F. L. Greenway, and J. C. Rood, “Effect of diets enriched in almonds on insulin action and serum lipids in adults with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 1000–1006, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. W. Scott, A. Balasubramanyam, K. T. Kimball, A. K. Aherns, C. M. Fordis Jr., and C. M. Ballantyne, “Long-term, randomized clinical trial of two diets in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 2481–2482, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. C. Tapsell, M. J. Batterham, G. Teuss et al., “Long-term effects of increased dietary polyunsaturated fat from walnuts on metabolic parameters in type II diabetes,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 1008–1015, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. C. Tapsell, L. J. Gillen, C. S. Patch et al., “Including walnuts in a low-fat/modified-faf diet improves HDL cholesterol-to-total cholesterol ratios in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2777–2783, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Jiang, D. R. Jacobs Jr., E. Mayer-Davis et al., “Nut and seed consumption and inflammatory markers in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 222–231, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. H. Wu, Y. P. Kang, N. H. Wang, H. J. Jou, and T. A. Wang, “Sesame ingestion affects sex hormones, antioxidant status, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, no. 5, pp. 1270–1275, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. Athar, J. McLaughlin, G. Taylor, and S. Mishra, The Concise New Zealand Food Composition Tables, New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research and Ministry of Health, Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2006.
  31. G. Assmann, H. Schriewer, G. Schmitz, and E. O. Hagele, “Quantification of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol by precipitation with phosphotungstic acid/MgCl2,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 2026–2030, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. W. T. Friedewald, R. I. Levy, and D. S. Fredrickson, “Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 499–502, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. I. Thurnham, E. Smith, and P. S. Flora, “Concurrent liquid-chromatographic assay of retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin in plasma, with tocopherol acetate as internal standard,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 377–381, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. P. Mensink and M. B. Katan, “Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a meta- analysis of 27 trials,” Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 911–919, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. Hodson, C. M. Skeaff, and W. A. H. Chisholm, “The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 908–915, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. T. Cooney, A. Dudina, D. De Bacquer et al., “HDL cholesterol protects against cardiovascular disease in both genders, at all ages and at all levels of risk,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 206, no. 2, pp. 611–616, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. V. Fonseca, A. Schweizer, D. Albrecht, M. A. Baron, I. Chang, and S. Dejager, “Addition of vildagliptin to insulin improves glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1148–1155, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. J. Coppell, M. Kataoka, S. M. Williams, A. W. Chisholm, S. M. Vorgers, and J. I. Mann, “Nutritional intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes who are hyperglycaemic despite optimised drug treatment—Lifestyle Over and Above Drugs in Diabetes (LOADD) study: randomised controlled trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 341, p. c3337, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. I. M. Stratton, A. I. Adler, H. A. W. Neil et al., “Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 321, no. 7258, pp. 405–412, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. Djoussé, T. Rudich, and J. M. Gaziano, “Nut consumption and risk of hypertension in US male physicians,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 10–14, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Estruch, M. A. Martínez-González, D. Corella et al., “Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors a randomized trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Abbey, M. Noakes, G. B. Belling, and P. J. Nestel, “Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 995–999, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. M. Alper and R. D. Mattes, “Effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1129–1137, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. E. Fraser, H. W. Bennett, K. B. Jaceldo, and J. Sabaté, “Effect on body weight of a free 76 kilojoule (320 calorie) daily supplement of almonds for six months,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 275–283, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. Hollis and R. Mattes, “Effect of chronic consumption of almonds on body weight in healthy humans,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 651–656, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. L. Tey, R. Brown, A. Chisholm, A. Gray, S. Williams, and C. Delahunty, “Current guidelines for nut consumption are achievable and sustainable: a hazelnut intervention,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 105, no. 10, pp. 1503–1511, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus