Table of Contents
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 628717, 10 pages
Review Article

Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome: Embryology, Genetics and Clinical and Surgical Treatment

1Department of Gynaecological and Obstetrical Sciences and Reproductive Medicine, University of Messina, Via C. Valeria 1, 98125 Messina, Italy
2Section of Histology and Embryology, Department of Biomorphology and Biotechnology, University of Messina, 1-98122 Messina, Italy

Received 7 December 2012; Accepted 25 December 2012

Academic Editors: N. A. Ginsberg and J. G. Schenker

Copyright © 2013 Alfonsa Pizzo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a pathological condition characterized by primary amenorrhea and infertility and by congenital aplasia of the uterus and of the upper vagina. The development of secondary sexual characters is normal as well as that the karyotype (46,XX). Etiologically, this syndrome may be caused by the lack of development of the Müllerian ducts between the fifth and the sixth weeks of gestation. To explain this condition, it has been suggested that in patients with MRKH syndrome, there is a very strong hyperincretion of Müllerian-inhibiting factor (MIF), which would provoke the lack of development of the Müllerian ducts from primitive structures (as what normally occurs in male phenotype). These alterations are commonly associated with renal agenesis or ectopia. Specific mutations of several genes such as WT1, PAX2, HOXA7-HOXA13, PBX1, and WNT4 involved in the earliest stages of embryonic development could play a key role in the etiopathogenesis of this syndrome. Besides, it seems that the other two genes, TCF2 (HNF1B) and LHX1, are involved in the determinism of this pathology. Currently, the most widely nonsurgical used techniques include the “Frank’s dilators method,” while the surgical ones most commonly used are those developed by McIndoe, Williams, Vecchietti, Davydov, and Baldwin.