International Scholarly Research Notices / 2013 / Article / Fig 4

Review Article

The Gut’s Little Brain in Control of Intestinal Immunity

Figure 4

VIP/SP and ACh/nicotine modulate inflammatory mediators in a cumulative manner. (a) RAW peritoneal macrophages were incubated with a dose range of VIP (0–10 μM) for 30 min prior to 3 hrs LPS stimulation (100 ng/mL). TNF production was measured with ELISA. (b) cells were pretreated with 10 μM ACh/nicotine for 30 min, then stimulated with 10 μM VIP or SP, and followed by 100 ng/mL LPS challenge. TNF levels were measured after 3 hrs and depicted as % of vehicle-treated cells. Data are mean s.e.m. of three independent experiments done in triplicate. * ; ** . E.P. van der Zanden et al., Tytgat Institute AMC, unpublished 2012.
630159.fig.004a
(a)
630159.fig.004b
(b)

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.