Table of Contents
ISRN Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 638028, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/638028
Research Article

n5-STZ Diabetic Model Develops Alterations in Sciatic Nerve and Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons of Wistar Rats

1Laboratory of Electrophysiology, Superior Institute of Biomedical Sciences, State University of Ceará, Avenue Paranjana, 1700 Campus of Itaperi, 60740-903 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil
2Department of Clinical Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Street Prof. Costa Mendes, 608 Campus Porangabuçu, 60.430-140 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil

Received 29 November 2012; Accepted 18 December 2012

Academic Editors: S. Bertera and S. Mishra

Copyright © 2013 Francisco Walber Ferreira-da-Silva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. WHO, Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications, Part 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999.
  2. S. Wild, G. Roglic, A. Green, R. Sicree, and H. King, “Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1047–1053, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. ADA, “Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, supplement 1, pp. S5–S10, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  4. A. J. M. Boulton, “Management of diabetic peripheral neuropathy,” Clinical Diabetes, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 9–15, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. U. Etuk, “Animals models for studying diabetes mellitus,” Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 130–134, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  6. D. K. Arulmozhi, A. Veeranjaneyulu, and S. L. Bodhankar, “Neonatal streptozotocin-induced rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a glance,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 217–221, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Wei, L. Ong, M. T. Smith et al., “The streptozotocin-diabetic rat as a model of the chronic complications of human diabetes,” Heart Lung and Circulation, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 44–50, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Akbarzadeh, D. Norouzian, M. R. Mehrabi et al., “Induction of diabetes by Streptozotocin in rats,” Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 60–64, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. S. Fröde and Y. S. Medeiros, “Animal models to test drugs with potential antidiabetic activity,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 173–183, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Masiello, “Animal models of type 2 diabetes with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 38, no. 5-6, pp. 873–893, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Srinivasan and P. Ramarao, “Animal models in type 2 diabetes research: an overview,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 451–472, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. Portha, J. Mossavat, C. Cuzin-Tourrel et al., “2007Neonatally streptozotocin-induced (n-STZ) diabetic rats: a family of type 2 diabetes models,” in Animal Models of Diabetes: Frontiers in Research, E. Shafrir, Ed., pp. 223–244, CRC Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition.
  13. L. J. Coppey, J. S. Gellett, E. P. Davidson, J. A. Dunlap, D. D. Lund, and M. A. Yorek, “Effect of antioxidant treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats on endoneurial blood flow, motor nerve conduction velocity, and vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles of the sciatic nerve,” Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1927–1937, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Srinivasan, M. Stevens, and J. W. Wiley, “Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: evidence for apoptosis associated mitochondrial dysfunction,” Diabetes, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1932–1938, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Hong, T. J. Morrow, P. E. Paulson, L. L. Isom, and J. W. Wiley, “Early painful diabetic neuropathy is associated with differential changes in tetrodotoxin-sensitive and -resistant sodium channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons in the rat,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 28, pp. 29341–29350, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Hong and J. W. Wiley, “Altered expression and function of sodium channels in large DRG neurons and myelinated A-fibers in early diabetic neuropathy in the rat,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 339, no. 2, pp. 652–660, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. I. M. Martínez, I. Morales, G. García-Pino, J. E. Campillo, and M. A. Tormo, “Experimental type 2 diabetes induces enzymatic changes in isolated rat enterocytes,” Experimental Diabesity Research, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 119–123, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Takada, M. A. Machado, S. B. Peres et al., “Neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus: a model of insulin resistance associated with loss of adipose mass,” Metabolism, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 977–984, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. J. Verspohl, “Recommended testing in diabetes research,” Planta Medica, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 581–590, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. K. Sinzato, P. H. O. Lima, K. E. de Campos, A. C. I. Kiss, M. V. C. Rudge, and D. C. Damascene, “Neonatally-induced diabetes: lipid profile outcomes and oxidative stress status in adult rats,” Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 384–388, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Hirade, H. Yasuda, M. Omatsu-Kanbe, R. Kikkawa, and H. Kitasato, “Tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels of dorsal root ganglion neurons are readily activated in diabetic rats,” Neuroscience, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 933–939, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. N. A. Calcutt, M. C. Jorge, T. L. Yaksh, and S. R. Chaplan, “Tactile allodynia and formalin hyperalgesia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: effects of insulin, aldose reductase inhibition and lidocaine,” Pain, vol. 68, no. 2-3, pp. 293–299, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Yamamoto, Y. Shimoshige, T. Yamaji, N. Murai, T. Aoki, and N. Matsuoka, “Pharmacological characterization of standard analgesics on mechanical allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 403–408, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. A. Möller, B. Johansson, and O. G. Berge, “Assessing mechanical allodynia in the rat paw with a new electronic algometer,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 84, no. 1-2, pp. 41–47, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. G. Vivancos, W. A. Verri, T. M. Cunha et al., “An electronic pressure-meter nociception paw test for rats,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 391–399, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. M. Lima-Accioly, P. R. Lavor-Porto, F. S. Cavalcante et al., “Essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius and its main constituent, 1,8-cineole, block excitability of rat sciatic nerve in vitro,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1158–1163, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Holsheimer, E. A. Dijkstra, H. Demeulemeester, and B. Nuttin, “Chronaxie calculated from current-duration and voltage-duration data,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 45–50, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. W. Ferreira-da-Silva, R. Barbosa, L. Moreira-Júnior et al., “Effects of 1,8-cineole on electrophysiological parameters of neurons of the rat superior cervical ganglion,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1068–1073, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. H. Leal-Cardoso, K. S. da Silva-Alves, F. W. Ferreira-da-Silva et al., “Linalool blocks excitability in peripheral nerves and voltage-dependent Na+ current in dissociated dorsal root ganglia neurons,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 645, no. 1-3, pp. 86–93, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. A. Clark and G. N. Pierce, “Cardiovascular complications of non-insulin-dependent diabetes: the JCR:LA-cp rat,” Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. Romanovsky, N. F. Cruz, G. A. Dienel, and M. Dobretsov, “Mechanical hyperalgesia correlates with insulin deficiency in normoglycemic streptozotocin-treated rats,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 384–394, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. Romanovsky and M. Dobretsov, “Pressure-induced pain: early sign of diabetes-associated impairment of insulin production in rats,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 483, no. 2, pp. 110–113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. W. Russell, A. Berent-Spillson, A. M. Vincent, C. L. Freimann, K. A. Sullivan, and E. L. Feldman, “Oxidative injury and neuropathy in diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 420–429, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. R. Singleton, A. G. Smith, and M. B. Bromberg, “Increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in patients with painful sensory neuropathy,” Diabetes Care, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1448–1453, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. G. Smith, J. Russell, E. L. Feldman et al., “Lifestyle intervention for pre-diabetic neuropathy,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1294–1299, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. A. Gutman, M. Z. Basilico, C. A. Bernal, A. Chicco, and Y. B. Lombardo, “Long-term hypertriglyceridemia and glucose intolerance in rats fed chronically an isocaloric sucrose-rich diet,” Metabolism, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1013–1020, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. S. Hill, B. J. Wlodarczyk, L. E. Mitchell, and R. H. Finnell, “Arsenate-induced maternal glucose intolerance and neural tube defects in a mouse model,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 239, no. 1, pp. 29–36, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. A. Zito, G. Vickers, L. Telford, and D. C. S. Roberts, “Experimentally induced glucose intolerance increases oral ethanol intake in rats,” Alcohol, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 257–261, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G. M. Manzano, L. M. P. Giuliano, and J. A. M. Nóbrega, “A brief historical note on the classification of nerve fibers,” Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 117–119, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  40. D. J. Aidley, The Physiology of Excitable Cells, Cambridge University Press, London, UK, 4th edition, 1998.
  41. N. E. Cameron and M. A. Cotter, “Effects of antioxidants on nerve and vascular dysfunction in experimental diabetes,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 45, no. 2-3, pp. 137–146, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. K. Saini, K. H. S. Arun, C. L. Kaul, and S. S. Sharma, “Acute hyperglycemia attenuates nerve conduction velocity and nerve blood flow in male Sprague-Dawley rats: reversal by adenosine,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 593–599, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. W. Zochodne, N. Ramji, and C. Toth, “Neuronal targeting in diabetes mellitus: a story of sensory neurons and motor neurons,” Neuroscientist, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 311–318, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. W. Zochodne, V. M. K. Verge, C. Cheng, H. Sun, and J. Johnston, “Does diabetes target ganglion neurones? Progressive sensory neurone involvement in long-term experimental diabetes,” Brain, vol. 124, no. 11, pp. 2319–2334, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y. I. Kim, H. S. Na, S. H. Kim et al., “Cell type-specific changes of the membrane properties of peripherally-axotomized dorsal root ganglion neurons in a rat model of neuropathic pain,” Neuroscience, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 301–309, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. Bányász and T. Kovács, “Altered [3H]ouabain binding to cardiac muscle in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic rats,” Experimental Physiology, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 65–76, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Ver, P. Csermely, T. Banyasz, T. Kovacs, and J. Somogyi, “Alterations in the properties and isoform ratios of brain Na+/K+-ATPase in streptozotocin diabetic rats,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1237, no. 2, pp. 143–150, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. Naka, H. Sasaki, Y. Kishi et al., “Effects of cilostazol on development of experimental diabetic neuropathy: functional and structural studies, and Na+-K+-ATPase acidity in peripheral nerve in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 153–162, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. W. A. Catterall, “From ionic currents to molecular mechanisms: the structure and function of voltage-gated sodium channels,” Neuron, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 13–25, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. Hille, Ion Channels of Excitable Membranes, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass, USA, 3rd edition, 2001.
  51. S. Weidemann, “The effect of the cardiac membrane potential on the rapid availability of the sodium-carrying system,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 213–224, 1955. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. Robinson Singleton, A. Gordon Smith, and M. B. Bromberg, “Painful sensory polyneuropathy associated with impaired glucose tolerance,” Muscle and Nerve, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1225–1228, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus