Table of Contents
ISRN Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 641098, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/641098
Clinical Study

Hypovitaminosis D in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Relation to Disease Control and Complications

1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El-Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
2Department of Family Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El-Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon

Received 17 August 2013; Accepted 5 September 2013

Academic Editors: C.-H. Anderwald and N. T. Raymond

Copyright © 2013 Hala Ahmadieh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Aims. This study aims at assessing the relationship between 25 (OH) vitamin D (25-OHD) levels and microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Methods. 136 patients (59 ± 11 years) with DM2 (disease duration 8.6 ± 7 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, HbA1c, 25-OHD levels, serum creatinine, and urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio were collected. Dilated retinal exam was performed, and diabetic neuropathy was assessed using the United Kingdom Screening Score. Results. Serum 25-OHD correlated negatively with HbA1c (    ). Mean 25-OHD levels were lower in subjects with diabetic retinopathy compared to those without retinopathy (12.3 ± 5.5 versus 21.8 ± 13.7, ) and lower in subjects with diabetic neuropathy compared to those without neuropathy (16.4 ± 10.4 versus 23.5 ± 14.5, ). After adjustment for BMI, diabetes duration, and smoking, 25-OHD was an independent predictor of HbA1c (β  −0.14; ). After adjustment for HbA1c, age, smoking, BMI and disease duration, 25-OHD were independent predictors for diabetic retinopathy: OR 2.8 [95% CI 2.1–8.0] and neuropathy: OR 4.5 [95% CI 1.6–12] for vitamin D < 20 versus vitamin D ≥ 20 ng/mL. Conclusion. Low serum 25-OHD level was an independent predictor of HbA1c, diabetic neuropathy, and diabetic retinopathy in patients with DM2.