Table of Contents
ISRN Endocrinology
Volume 2013, Article ID 673146, 7 pages
Clinical Study

Risk Factors Associated with Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules in Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

Endocrinology Division, Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Rua Tessalia Vieira de Camargo 126, Barao Geraldo, Campinas 13084-971, SP, Brazil

Received 16 April 2013; Accepted 11 May 2013

Academic Editors: F. Escobar-Jimenez, R. V. García-Mayor, E. Hajduch, and J. Pachucki

Copyright © 2013 Priscila Carneiro Moreira Lima et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. Assess the prevalence of thyroid nodules and predictors of malignant origin in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Patients and Methods. Retrospective study including 275 patients, 198 with Graves' disease and 77 with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Clinical and demographical data, ultrasonographical nodule characteristics, total thyroid volume and histological characteristics were recorded. Results. Graves’ disease: the prevalence of thyroid nodules and thyroid carcinoma were 27.78% and 5.05%, respectively. Older age (OR = 1.054; 95% CI = 1.029–1.080) and larger thyroid volumes (OR = 1.013; 95% CI = 1.003–1.022) increased the chance of nodules. Younger age (OR = 1.073; 95% CI = 1.020–1.128) and larger thyroid volume (OR = 1.018; 95% CI = 1.005–1.030) predicted thyroid carcinoma. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: the prevalence of thyroid nodules and carcinomas were 50.7% and 7.8%, respectively. Nodules were predicted by thyroid volume (OR = 1.030; 95% CI = 1.001–1.062). We found higher number of nodules in patients with thyroid carcinoma than in those with benign nodules (3 versus 2; ). Patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis presented nodules more frequently than patients with Graves’ disease (50.65% versus 27.28%; ), while the prevalence of carcinoma was similar ( ). Conclusions. Larger goiter was associated with carcinoma in Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Younger patients presented higher risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma in Graves’ disease. The prevalence of carcinoma was similar in both conditions.