Table of Contents
ISRN Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 673146, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/673146
Clinical Study

Risk Factors Associated with Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules in Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

Endocrinology Division, Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Rua Tessalia Vieira de Camargo 126, Barao Geraldo, Campinas 13084-971, SP, Brazil

Received 16 April 2013; Accepted 11 May 2013

Academic Editors: F. Escobar-Jimenez, R. V. García-Mayor, E. Hajduch, and J. Pachucki

Copyright © 2013 Priscila Carneiro Moreira Lima et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. E. Holm, H. Blomgren, and T. Löwhagen, “Cancer risks in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 312, pp. 601–604, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. F. Pacini, R. Elisei, G. C. Di Coscio et al., “Thyroid carcinoma in thyrotoxic patients treated by surgery,” The Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 107–112, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Cantalamessa, M. Baldini, A. Orsatti, L. Meroni, V. Amodei, and D. Castagnone, “Thyroid nodules in graves disease and the risk of thyroid carcinoma,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 15, pp. 1705–1708, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. Pazaitou-Panayiotou, K. Michalakis, and R. Paschke, “Thyroid cancer in patients with hyperthyroidism,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 255–262, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. G. P. Yu, J. C. L. Li, D. Branovan, S. McCormick, and S. P. Schantz, “Thyroid cancer incidence and survival in the national cancer institute surveillance, epidemiology, and end results race/ethnicity groups,” Thyroid, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 465–473, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Belfiore, M. R. Garofalo, D. Giuffrida et al., “Increased aggressiveness of thyroid cancer in patients with Graves' disease,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 830–835, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. E. Holm, H. Blomgren, and T. Lowhagen, “Cancer risks in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 312, no. 10, pp. 601–604, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Singh, A. R. Shaha, H. Trivedi, J. F. Carew, A. Poluri, and J. P. Shah, “Coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis with papillary thyroid carcinoma: impact on presentation, management, and outcome,” Surgery, vol. 126, no. 6, pp. 1070–1077, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. L. Shih, J. A. Lee, C. B. Hsieh et al., “Thyroidectomy for Hashimoto's thyroiditis: complications and associated cancers,” Thyroid, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 729–734, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W. Shabana, E. Peeters, and M. De Maeseneer, “Measuring thyroid gland volume: should we change the correction factor?” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 234–236, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. M. Dobyns, G. E. Sheline, and J. B. Workman, “Malignant and benign neoplasms of the thyroid in patients treated for hyperthyroidism: a report of the cooperative thyrotoxicosis therapy. Follow up study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 976–998, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Belfiore, D. Russo, R. Vigneri et al., “Graves' disease, thyroid, nodules and thyroid cancer,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 711–718, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  13. W. B. Kim, S. M. Han, T. Y. Kim et al., “Ultrasonographic screening for detection of thyroid cancer in patients with Grave's disease,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 719–725, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Filetti, A. Belfiore, S. M. Amir et al., “The role of thyroid-stimulating antibodies of Graves' disease in differentiated thyroid cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 318, no. 12, pp. 753–759, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. L. Mazzaferri, “Management of a solitary thyroid nodule,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 328, no. 8, pp. 553–559, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. B. Kim, S. M. Han, T. Y. Kim et al., “Ultrassonographic screening for detection of thyroid cancer in patients with Graves' disease,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 719–725, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. T. Rago, E. Fiore, M. Scutari et al., “Male sex, single nodularity, and young age are associated with the risk of finding a papillary thyroid cancer on fine-needle aspiration cytology in a large series of patients with nodular thyroid disease,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 162, no. 4, pp. 763–770, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. S. Giles, T. Fatih, B. Harika, K. Yersu, T. Tarik, and T. Serdar, “The risk factors for malignancy in surgically treated patients for Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and toxic adenoma,” Surgery, vol. 144, no. 6, pp. 1028–1037, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. E. Carnell and W. A. Valente, “Thyroid nodules in Graves' disease: classification, characterization, and response to treatment,” Thyroid, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 571–576, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. Erbil, U. Barbaros, N. Ozbey et al., “Graves' disease, with and without nodules, and the risk of thyroid carcinoma,” The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, vol. 122, pp. 291–295, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  21. L. Anderson, W. D. Middleton, S. A. Teefey et al., “Hashimoto thyroiditis: part 2, sonographic analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 195, no. 1, pp. 216–222, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. Gul, A. Dirikoc, G. Kiyak et al., “The association between thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis: the ultrasonographic and histopathologic characteristics of malignant nodules,” Thyroid, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 873–878, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Takashima, F. Matsuzuka, T. Nagareda, N. Tomiyama, and T. Kozuka, “Thyroid nodules associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis: assessment with US,” Radiology, vol. 185, no. 1, pp. 125–130, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. M. Solivetti, D. Bacaro, P. Cecconi, R. Baldelli, and F. Marandino, “Small hyperechogenic nodules in thyroiditis: usefulness of cytological characterization,” Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 433–435, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Anil, S. Goksel, and A. Gursoy, “Hashimoto's thyroiditis is not associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroid nodules: a single-center prospective study,” Thyroid, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 601–606, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus