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ISRN Nursing
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 706054, 12 pages
Research Article

Implementation Interventions Used in Nursing Homes and Hospitals: A Descriptive, Comparative Study between Austria, Germany, and The Netherlands

1Institute of Nursing Science, Medical University of Graz, Billrothgaße 6, 8010 Graz, Austria
2Department of Health Services Research Focusing on Chronic Care and Ageing, Section of Nursing Science, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
3Department of Nursing and Management, Faculty of Business & Social Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Alexanderstraße 1, 20099 Hamburg, Germany
4Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, Protestant University of Applied Sciences, Zweifalltorweg 12, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany

Received 10 May 2013; Accepted 23 June 2013

Academic Editors: K. Clark, A. Green, B. Mandleco, K. G. Schepp, and D. Whitehead

Copyright © 2013 Helga E. Breimaier et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Translating guidelines into nursing practice remains a considerable challenge. Until now, little attention has been paid to which interventions are used in practice to implement guidelines on changing clinical nursing practice. This cross-sectional study determined the current ranges and rates of implementation-related interventions in Austria, Germany, and The Netherlands and explored possible differences between these countries. An online questionnaire based on the conceptual framework of implementation interventions (professional, organizational, financial, and regulatory) from the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) data collection checklist was used to gather data from nursing homes and hospitals. Provision of written materials is the most frequently used professional implementation intervention (85%), whereas changes in the patient record system rank foremost among organisational interventions (78%). Financial incentives for nurses are rarely used. More interventions were used in Austria and Germany than in The Netherlands (20.3/20.2/17.3). Professional interventions are used more frequently in Germany and financial interventions more frequently in The Netherlands. Implementation efforts focus mainly on professional and organisational interventions. Nurse managers and other responsible personnel should direct their focus to a broader array of implementation interventions using the four different categories of EPOC’s conceptual framework.