Table of Contents
ISRN Epidemiology
Volume 2013, Article ID 720760, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/720760
Clinical Study

Risk Factors of Hypertension at UNRWA Primary Health Care Centers in Gaza Governorates

1School of Public Health, Al-Quds University, Jeruslem, Palestine
2Quality Control Department, Palestinian Ministry of Health, Gaza, Palestine

Received 4 January 2013; Accepted 30 January 2013

Academic Editors: C. Szmaragd and J. W. R. Twisk

Copyright © 2013 Y. Abed and S. Abu-Haddaf. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. World Health Organization, Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of the Indian Society of Hypertension and 4th International CME on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension and Coronary Artery Disease, WHO, New Delhi, India, November 2005.
  2. World Health Organization, “Global health risks,” The World Health Report 2004, WHO, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  3. O. M. N. Khatib and M. S. El-Guindy, Clinical Guideline for the Management of Hypertension, EMRO Technical Publications Series 29, World Health Organization, Cairo, Egypt, 2005.
  4. World Health Organization, Report on the Regional Consultation on Hypertension Prevention and Control (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 20–22 December), WHO-EM/NCD/042/E, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt, 2004.
  5. J. L. Han, “Actions to control hypertension among adults in Oklahoma,” Preventing Chronic Disease, vol. 8, no. 1, article A10, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Ministry of Health, “Health status in Palestine,” Annual Report 2004, MOH, Gaza, Palestine, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  7. UNRWA, “Long and Healthy Lives,” 2011, http://www.unrwa.org/userfiles/2010082525837.pdf.
  8. World Health Organization, Gaza Strip Initial Health Needs Assessment, WHO, Gaza, Palestine, 2009.
  9. N. Saeed Al-Hamdan, A. Kutbi, A. A. Choudhry, and R. Nooh, “Characteristics risk factors and treatment practices of known adult hypertensive patients in Saudi Arabia,” International Journal of Hypertension, vol. 2010, Article ID 168739, 7 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. M. M. Al-Nozha, M. Abdullah, M. R. Arafah et al., “Hypertension in Saudi Arabia,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 77–84, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. N. Aygül, K. Ozdemir, A. Abaci et al., “Prevalence of risk factors of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in Turkish Patients living in Central Anatolia,” The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3–8, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  12. A. J. Hammoudeh, H. Al-Tarawneh, A. Elharassis et al., “Prevalence of conventional risk factors in Jordanians with coronary heart disease: the Jordan Hyperlipidemia and Related Targets Study (JoHARTS),” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 179–183, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. K. Mehra and B. Z. Lashkari, High Blood Pressure: Causes, Prevention and Treatment. A Practical Guide to the Prevention and Control of High Blood Pressure and Its Complications: An Invaluable Source of Information to Help You Stay Healthy and Live Longer, Orient Health Books, Ravindra Press, New Delhi, India, 1992.
  14. Z. Sun, L. Zheng, Y. Wei et al., “The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among rural adults in Liaoning province of China,” Clinical Cardiology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 183–187, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. E. Macedo, M. J. Lima, A. O. Silva, P. Alcantara, V. Ramalhinho, and J. Carmona, “Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Portugal: the PAP study,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1661–1666, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Wilkins, N. R. Campbell, M. R. Joffres et al., “Blood pressure in Canadian adults.,” Health Reports, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 37–46, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. Ostchega, S. S. Yoon, J. Hughes, and T. Louis, “Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control—continued disparities in adults: United States, 2005-2006,” NCHS Data Brief, no. 3, pp. 1–8, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. I. Idris, R. Deepa, D. J. Fernando, and V. Mohan, “Relation between age and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Asian Indian patients with diabetes: a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 243–249, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. B. Kannel, “Hypertension and the risk of cardiovascular disease,” in Hypertension Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management, J. H. Laragh and B. M. Brenner, Eds., pp. 101–117, Raven Press, New York, NY, USA, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  20. P. M. Kearney, M. Whelton, K. Reynolds, P. Muntner, P. K. Whelton, and J. He, “Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data,” Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9455, pp. 217–223, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Khellah, Assessment of nutritional status among the adult Palestinian aged 19–59 years in the Gaza Strip [M.S. thesis], Al-Azhar University, Gaza, Palestine, 2010.
  22. Z. Rionda and A. Clements, “The burden of disease in the West Bank and Gaza,” An Assessment Report, The United States Agency for International Development in the West Bank and Gaza, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  23. M. Wolz, J. Cutler, E. J. Roccella, F. Rohde, T. Thom, and V. Burt, “Statement from the national high blood pressure education program: prevalence of hypertension,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 13, no. 1, part 1, pp. 103–104, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, Press Release: Poverty and Living Conditions in the Palestinian Territory, 2009-2010, PCBS, Ramallah, Palestine, 2010.
  25. Palestinian Center Bureau of Statistics, Palestine in Figures 2010, PCBS, Ramallah, Palestine, 2011.
  26. M. Al-Farsi, M. El-Melighy, S. M. Mohamed, and L. Ali, “Healthy lifestyle study: assessment of life style risk factors among Sur city population,” Sur Healthy City Project, 2006 Steps Report Oman, 2011, http://www.who.int/chp/steps/STEPS_Report_Oman2006.pdf.
  27. M. M. Ibrahim, “The Egyptian National Hypertension Project (NHP): preliminary results,” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. S39–S41, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. El-Dabbakeh, Coronary heart disease risk factors assessment among adult population in Gaza Strip: hospital based case-control study [M.S. thesis], Al-Quds University, Gaza, Palestine, 2000.
  29. M. Reziq, Compliance of hypertensive patients with their management regime at Gaza Strip [M.S. thesis], Al-Quds University, Gaza, Palestine, 2006.
  30. A. Tsutsumi, K. Kayaba, K. Tsutsumi, and M. Igarashi, “Association between job strain and prevalence of hypertension: a cross sectional analysis in a Japanese working population with a wide range of occupations: the Jichi Medical School cohort study,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 367–373, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. S. A. Mousa, S. Yousef, F. Riccardo, W. Zeidan, and G. Sabatinelli, “Hyperglycaemia, hypertension and their risk factors among Palestine refugees served by UNRWA,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 460–465, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. Rampal, S. Rampal, M. Z. Azhar, and A. R. Rahman, “Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Malaysia: a national study of 16,440 subjects,” Public Health, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 11–18, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Reynolds GU, K. D, and P. Muntneretal, “Geographic variations in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in China,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1273–1281, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  34. M. A. Mendez, R. Cooper, R. Wilks, A. Luke, and T. Forrester, “Income, education, and blood pressure in adults in Jamaica, a middle-income developing country,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 400–408, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. P. Forman, M. J. Stampfer, and G. C. Curhan, “Diet and lifestyle risk factors associated with incident hypertension in women,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 302, no. 4, pp. 401–411, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. I. Grotto, M. Huerta, and Y. Sharabi, “Hypertension and socioeconomic status,” Current Opinion in Cardiology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 335–339, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. S. Reddy, D. Prabhakaran, P. Jeemon et al., “Educational status and cardiovascular risk profile in Indians,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 41, pp. 16263–16268, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, Palestinians in the End of 2010, PCBS, Ramallah, Palestine, 2010.
  39. B. Mensch, “The transition to marriage,” in Growing up Global: The Changing Transition to Adulthood in Developing Countries, C. B. Lloyed, Ed., pp. 416–505, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  40. J. N. Al-Asadi, “Type A behavior pattern: is it a risk factor for hypertension?” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 740–745, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  41. H. Abu-Tawilla, Patient with acute myocardial infarction: cardiac risk factor profiles, presentation, thrombolytic and outcome [M.S. thesis], Al-Quds University, Gaza, Palestine, 2001.
  42. R. W. Gifford, M. H. Alderman, A. V. Chobanian et al., “The fifth report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC V),” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 154–183, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Zanchetti, J. Chalmers, K. Arakawa et al., “1993 guidelines for the management of mild hypertension: memorandum from a World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension meeting,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 905–918, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Chalmers, “The place of combination therapy in the treatment of hypertension in 1993,” Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1299–1313, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. M. Kearney, M. Whelton, K. Reynolds, P. K. Whelton, and J. He, “Worldwide prevalence of hypertension: a systematic review,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 11–19, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H. Li, Q. Meng, X. Sun, A. Salter, N. E. Briggs, and J. E. Hiller, “Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in rural China: results from Shandong Province,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 432–438, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Kastarinen, R. Antikainen, M. Peltonen et al., “Prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension in Finland during 1982–2007,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1552–1559, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Esteghamati, M. Abbasi, S. Alikhani et al., “Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and risk factors associated with hypertension in the Iranian population: the national survey of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases of Iran,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 620–626, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. H. Abdeen, “Chronic diseases in Palestine: the rising tide,” Bridges Israeli-Palestinian Public Health Magazine, vol. 2, no. 3, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  50. Abdul-Wahab, A. W. M. Moosa, K. Gharib et al., National Nutrition Survey for Adult Bahrainis Aged 19 Years and above, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Bahrain, 2002.
  51. Amy, R. Howard, D. Kathryn, M. Nancy, R. JoAnn E, and E. Julie, “The joint effects of physical activity and body mass index on coronary heart disease risk in women,” Archive of Internal Medicine, vol. 168, no. 8, pp. 884–890, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  52. D. De Bacquer, G. De Backer, D. Cokkinos et al., “Overweight and obesity in patients with established coronary heart disease: are we meeting the challenge?” European Heart Journal, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 121–128, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. Barter, A. M. Gotto, J. C. LaRosa et al., “HDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular events,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 13, pp. 1301–1310, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K. Bibbins-Domingo, P. Coxson, M. J. Pletcher, J. Lightwood, and L. Goldman, “Adolescent overweight and future adult coronary heart disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 23, pp. 2371–2379, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. Erbel, J. A. C. Delaney, N. Lehmann et al., “Signs of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in relation to risk factor distribution in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study (HNR),” European Heart Journal, vol. 29, no. 22, pp. 2782–2791, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Lamon-Fava, D. M. Herrington, D. M. Reboussin et al., “Plasma levels of HDL subpopulations and remnant lipoproteins predict the extent of angiographically-defined coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 575–579, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. Fransson, U. De Faire, A. Ahlbom, C. Reuterwall, J. Hallqvist, and L. Alfredsson, “The effect of leisure-time physical activity on the risk of acute myocardial infarction depending on body mass index: a population-based case-control study,” BMC Public Health, vol. 6, article 296, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. E. Gilbert, M. Jasik, M. DeLuise, C. J. O'Callaghan, and M. E. Cooper, “Diabetes and hypertension: Australian Diabetes Society position statement,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 163, no. 7, pp. 372–375, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. A. Glantz and W. W. Parmley, “Passive smoking and heart disease: mechanisms and risk,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 273, no. 13, pp. 1047–1053, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Y. He, T. H. Lam, B. Jiang et al., “Passive smoking and risk of peripheral arterial disease and ischemic stroke in chinese women who never smoked,” Circulation, vol. 118, no. 15, pp. 1535–1540, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. B. V. Howard, D. C. Robbins, M. L. Sievers et al., “LDL cholesterol as a strong predictor of coronary heart disease in diabetic individuals with insulin resistance and low LDL: the Strong Heart Study,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 830–835, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. B. S. Ibrahim, “The frequency of systolic versus diastolic heart failure in an Egyptian cohort,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 41–45, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. Imazu, H. Yamamoto, M. Toyofuku et al., “Hyperinsulinemia for the development of hypertension: data from the Hawaii-Los Angeles-Hiroshima study,” Hypertension Research, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 531–536, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. P. Kengne, P. K. Awah, L. Fezeu, and J. C. Mbanya, “The burden of high blood pressure and related risk factors in urban Sub-Saharan Africa: evidences from Douala in Cameroon,” African Health Sciences, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 38–44, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. R. Law, J. K. Morris, and N. J. Wald, “Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and ischaemic heart disease: an evaluation of the evidence,” British Medical Journal, vol. 315, no. 7114, pp. 973–980, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. K. Nasir, E. D. Michos, J. A. Rumberger et al., “Coronary artery calcification and family history of premature coronary heart disease: sibling history is more strongly associated than parental history,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 15, pp. 2150–2156, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. Oba, C. Nagata, K. Nakamura, N. Takatsuka, and H. Shimizu, “Self-reported diabetes mellitus and risk of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in Takayama: a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan,” Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 197–203, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. R. Padwal, S. E. Straus, and F. A. McAlister, “Evidence based management of hypertension: cardiovascular risk factors and their effects on the decision to treat hypertension: evidence based review,” British Medical Journal, vol. 322, no. 7292, pp. 977–980, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. T. Pischon, C. J. Girman, F. M. Sacks, N. Rifai, M. J. Stampfer, and E. B. Rimm, “Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in the prediction of coronary heart disease in men,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 22, pp. 3375–3383, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. Yu, C. C. Patterson, and J. W. G. Yarnell, “Is vigorous physical activity contraindicated in subjects with coronary heart disease? Evidence from the Caerphilly study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 602–608, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. Sieri, V. Krogh, F. Berrino et al., “Dietary glycemic load and index and risk of coronary heart disease in a large Italian cohort: the EPICOR study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 170, no. 7, pp. 640–647, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus