Table of Contents
ISRN Zoology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 734040, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/734040
Research Article

Short-Term Memory of the Amplitude of Body Rotation in Orienting Behavior of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis)

1Faculty of Integrated Human Studies, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
2Department of Cognitive and Behavioral Sciences, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
3Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan

Received 11 February 2013; Accepted 28 February 2013

Academic Editors: A. Arslan, I. Krams, D. Park, and A. Robins

Copyright © 2013 Gouki Okazawa and Shintaro Funahashi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) can orient its body toward the prey by analyzing the direction of approaching water waves. Xenopus accurately orients toward the source of the stimulus when the stimulus is generated several cm away from its body. However, although Xenopus orientation behavior fluctuates when the stimulus is generated very near or above its body, the amplitude of the body rotation in the orienting behavior was affected by the preceding orienting behavior that had been performed several seconds before. In particular, the amplitude of the rotation in response to the stimulus applied above the body was positively correlated with that of the preceding rotation behavior in response to a stimulus generated several cm away from the body, indicating that Xenopus tends to repeat the preceding behavior if the direction of the stimulus is ambiguous. The results presented show the evidence that Xenopus can retain the amplitude of the rotation of the preceding orienting behavior for several seconds.