Table of Contents
ISRN Oceanography
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 739034, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/739034
Review Article

Coral Reef Resilience through Biodiversity

US Geological Survey, Southeast Ecological Science Center, Caribbean Field Station, St. John, VI 00830, USA

Received 12 September 2012; Accepted 18 October 2012

Academic Editors: D. Alongi and C. Grenz

Copyright © 2013 Caroline S. Rogers. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. Moberg and C. Folke, “Ecological goods and services of coral reef ecosystems,” Ecological Economics, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 215–233, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. B. C. Jackson, M. X. Kirby, W. H. Berger et al., “Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5530, pp. 629–637, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. Knowlton, “The future of coral reefs,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 10, pp. 5419–5425, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood et al., “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5635, pp. 929–933, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. Sala and N. Knowlton, “Global marine biodiversity trends,” Annual Review of Environment and Resources, vol. 31, pp. 93–122, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. Worm, E. B. Barbier, N. Beaumont et al., “Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services,” Science, vol. 314, no. 5800, pp. 787–790, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. R. Palumbi, P. A. Sandifer, J. D. Allan et al., “Managing for ocean biodiversity to sustain marine ecosystem services,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 204–211, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Wild, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, M. S. Naumann et al., “Climate change impedes scleractinian corals as primary reef ecosystem engineers,” Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 205–215, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. De'ath, K. E. Fabricius, H. Sweatman, and M. Puotinen, “The 27-yr decline of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its causes,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 109, no. 44, pp. 17734–17735, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. P. M. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J. M. Melillo, “Human domination of Earth's ecosystems,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5325, pp. 494–499, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. R. Walther, E. Post, P. Convey et al., “Ecological responses to recent climate change,” Nature, vol. 416, no. 6879, pp. 389–395, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. S. Holling, “Resilience and stability of ecological systems,” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol. 4, pp. 1–23, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  13. R. B. Aronson and W. F. Precht, “Evolutionary paleoecology of Caribbean coral reefs,” in Evolutionary Paleoecology: The Ecological Context of Macroevolutionary Change, W. D. Allmon and D. J. Bottjer, Eds., pp. 171–233, Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  14. C. Tang, “Stability in ecological and paleoecological systems: variability at both short and long timescales,” in Evolutionary Paleoecology: The Ecological Context of Macroevolutionary Change, W. Allmon and D. Bottjer, Eds., Chapter 5, pp. 63–81, Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  15. P. J. Mumby and R. S. Steneck, “The resilience of coral reefs and its implications for reef management,” in Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition, Z. Dubinsky and N. Stambler, Eds., pp. 465–491, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  16. J. H. Connell and W. P. Sousa, “On the evidence needed to judge ecological stability or persistence,” American Naturalist, vol. 121, no. 6, pp. 789–824, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. M. West and R. V. Salm, “Resistance and Resilience to Coral Bleaching: implications for Coral Reef Conservation and Management,” Conservation Biology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 956–967, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. H. Connell, “Disturbance and recovery of coral assemblages,” Coral Reefs, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. S101–S113, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. J. Done, “Phase shifts in coral reef communities and their ecological significance,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 247, no. 1-3, pp. 121–132, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. E. Johannes, Ed., Pollution and Degradation of Coral Reef Communities, Elsevier Scientific, New York, NY, USA, 1975.
  21. M. Nyström, C. Folke, and F. Moberg, “Coral reef disturbance and resilience in a human-dominated environment,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 413–417, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. Wilkinson, “Status of coral reefs of the world: summary of threats and remedial action,” in Coral Reef Conservation, I. M. Côté and J. D. Reynolds, Eds., pp. 3–39, Cambridge University Press, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  23. L. Burke, K. Reytar, M. D. Spalding, and A. Perry, Reefs at Risk Revisited, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, USA, 2011.
  24. B. M. Riegl and R. E. Dodge, Eds., Coral Reefs of the World 1: Coral Reefs of the USA, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2008.
  25. A. E. Lugo and S. C. Snedaker, “The ecology of mangroves,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 5, pp. 39–64, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  26. D. R. Bellwood, T. P. Hughes, C. Folke, and M. Nyström, “Confronting the coral reef crisis,” Nature, vol. 429, no. 6994, pp. 827–833, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. A. Kleypas, “Constraints on predicting coral reef response to climate change,” in Geological Approaches to Coral Reef Ecology. Ecological Studies, R. B. Aronson, Ed., vol. 192, pp. 386–424, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  28. C. S. Rogers and J. Miller, “Permanent “phase shifts” or reversible declines in coral cover? Lack of recovery of two coral reefs in St. John, US Virgin Islands,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 306, pp. 103–114, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. F. Bruno, H. Sweatman, W. F. Precht, E. R. Selig, and V. G. W. Schutte, “Assessing evidence of phase shifts from coral to macroalgal dominance on coral reefs,” Ecology, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 1478–1484, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Roff and P. J. Mumby, “Global disparity in the resilience of coral reefs,” TREE, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 404–413, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  31. R. G. Lighty, I. G. Macintyre, and R. Stuckenrath, “Acropora palmata reef framework: a reliable indicator of sea level in the Western Atlantic for the past 10,000 years,” Coral Reefs, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 125–130, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. G. Hatcher, “A maritime accident provides evidence for alternate stable states in benthic communities on coral reefs,” Coral Reefs, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 199–204, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. P. Hughes, “Catastrophes, phase shifts, and large-scale degradation of a Caribbean coral reef,” Science, vol. 265, no. 5178, pp. 1547–1551, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. R. Dudgeon, R. B. Aronson, J. F. Bruno, and W. F. Precht, “Phase shifts and stable states on coral reefs,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 413, pp. 201–216, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Nyström, N. A. J. Graham, J. Lokrantz, and A. V. Norström, “Capturing the cornerstones of coral reef resilience: linking theory to practice,” Coral Reefs, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 795–809, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. S. Pratchett, S. K. Wilson, N. A. J. Graham, P. L. Munday, G. P. Jones, and N. V. C. Polunin, “Coral bleaching and consequences for motile reef organisms: past, present and uncertain future effects,” in Coral Bleaching, M. J. H. van Oppen and J. M. Lough, Eds., Chapter 9, pp. 139–158, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  37. A. B. Pittock, “Coral reefs and environmental change: adapatation to what?” American Zoologist, vol. 39, pp. 10–29, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  38. O. Hoegh-Guldberg, P. J. Mumby, A. J. Hooten et al., “Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification,” Science, vol. 318, no. 5857, pp. 1737–1742, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, and D. Xiaosu, Eds., IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  40. S. D. Donner, T. R. Knutson, and M. Oppenheimer, “Model-based assessment of the role of human-induced climate change in the 2005 Caribbean coral bleaching event,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 13, pp. 5483–5488, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. P. Lesser, “Coral reef bleaching and global climate change: can corals survive the next century?” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 13, pp. 5259–5260, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. C. Hegerl, F. W. Zwiers, P. Braconnot et al., “Understanding and attributing climate change,” in Climate Change: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007.
  43. R. A. Feely, C. L. Sabine, K. Lee et al., “Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5682, pp. 362–366, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of the Working Group I to the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007.
  45. J. A. Kleypas, J. W. McManus, and L. A. B. Menez, “Environmental limits to coral reef development: where do we draw the line?” American Zoologist, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 146–159, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. M. Pandolfi, S. R. Connolly, D. J. Marshall, and A. L. Cohen, “Projecting coral reef futures under global warming and ocean acidification,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6041, pp. 418–422, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. P. W. Glynn, “Coral reef bleaching: ecological perspectives,” Coral Reefs, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. B. E. Brown, “Coral bleaching: causes and consequences,” Coral Reefs, vol. 16, suppement 1, pp. S129–S138, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs,” Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 839–866, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. C. Baker, P. W. Glynn, and B. Riegl, “Climate change and coral reef bleaching: an ecological assessment of long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlook,” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 435–471, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. P. Lesser, “Coral bleaching: causes and mechanisms,” in Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition, Z. Dubinsky and N. Stambler, Eds., pp. 405–419, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  52. N. Stambler, “Zooxanthellae: the yellow symbionts inside animals,” in Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition, Z. Dubinsky and N. Stambler, Eds., pp. 87–106, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  53. J. M. Shick, M. P. Lesser, and P. L. Jokiel, “Effects of ultraviolet radiation on corals and other coral reef organisms,” Global Change Biology, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 527–545, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. P. Lesser, “Experimental biology of coral reef ecosystems,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 300, no. 1-2, pp. 217–252, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. P. Lesser, “Oxidative stress in marine environments: biochemistry and physiological ecology,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 68, pp. 253–278, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. J. Mumby, J. R. M. Chisholm, A. J. Edwards, S. Andrefouet, and J. Jaubert, “Cloudy weather may have saved Society Island reef corals during the 1998 ENSO event,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 222, pp. 209–216, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Leahy, M. Kingsford, and C. Steinberg, “Do clouds save the Great Barrier Reef?” in Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, p. 190, Cairns, Australia, 2012.
  58. P. J. Mumby, I. A. Elliott, C. M. Eakin et al., “Reserve design for uncertain responses of coral reefs to climate change,” Ecology Letters, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 132–140, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. A. Bender, T. R. Knutson, R. E. Tuleya et al., “Modeled impact of anthropogenic warming on the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes,” Science, vol. 327, no. 5964, pp. 454–458, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. D. Woodley, E. A. Chornesky, P. A. Clifford et al., “Hurricane Allen's impact on Jamaican coral reefs,” Science, vol. 214, no. 4522, pp. 749–755, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. E. Lugo, C. S. Rogers, and S. W. Nixon, “Hurricanes, coral reefs and rainforests: resistance, ruin and recovery in the Caribbean,” Ambio, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 106–114, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. K. Hubbard, K. M. Parsons, J. C. Bythell, and N. D. Walker, “The effects of Hurricane Hugo on the reefs and associated environments of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands—a preliminary assessment,” Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, vol. 8, pp. 33–48, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. N. Knowlton, J. C. Lang, and B. D. Keller, Case Study of Natural Population Collapse: Post-Hurricane Predation on Jamaican Staghorn Corals, vol. 31 of Smithsonian Contribution, 1990.
  64. A. J. Bright, The effect of swell-generated physical damage on disease prevalence and asexual reproduction in the coral, Acropora palmata (Lamarck) [M.S. thesis], University of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands, 2009.
  65. S. K. Wilson, M. Adjeroud, D. R. Bellwood et al., “Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes,” Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 213, no. 6, pp. 894–900, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. D. P. Manzello, M. Brandt, T. B. Smith, D. Lirman, J. C. Hendee, and R. S. Nemeth, “Hurricanes benefit bleached corals,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 29, pp. 12035–12039, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. Erez, S. Reynaud, J. Silverman, K. Schneider, and D. Allemand, “Coral calcification under ocean acidification and global change,” in Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition, Z. Dubinsky and N. Stambler, Eds., pp. 151–176, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  68. J. P. Gattuso, D. Allemand, and M. Frankignoulle, “Photosynthesis and calcification at cellular, organismal and community levels in coral reefs: a review on interactions and control by carbonate chemistry,” American Zoologist, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 160–183, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. I. B. Kuffner, A. J. Andersson, P. L. Jokiel, K. S. Rodgers, and F. T. MacKenzie, “Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 114–117, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. G. E. Hofmann, J. P. Barry, P. J. Edmunds et al., “The effect of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms in marine ecosystems: an organism-to-ecosystem perspective,” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol. 41, pp. 127–147, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “The impact of climate change on coral reef ecosystems,” in Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition, Z. Dubinsky and N. Stambler, Eds., pp. 391–403, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  72. K. K. Yates and R. B. Halley, “CO3-2 concentration and pCO2 thresholds for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat, Hawaii,” Biogeosciences, vol. 3, pp. 1–13, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. Silverman, B. Lazar, L. Cao, K. Caldeira, and J. Erez, “Coral reefs may start dissolving when atmospheric CO2 doubles,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 36, no. 5, Article ID L05606, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. C. R. Wilkinson, “Global and local threats to coral reef functioning and existence: review and predictions,” Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 867–878, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. E. R. Selig, C. D. Harvell, J. F. Bruno et al., “Analyzing the relationship between ocean temperature anomalies and coral disease outbreaks at broad spatial scales,” in Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Science and Management, J. Phinney, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. Kleypas, W. Skirving, and A. Strong, Eds., pp. 111–128, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  76. J. F. Bruno, E. R. Selig, K. S. Casey et al., “Thermal stress and coral cover as drivers of coral disease outbreaks,” PLoS Biology, vol. 5, no. 6, Article ID e124, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. E. Brandt and J. W. McManus, “Disease incidence is related to bleaching extent in reef-building corals,” Ecology, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 2859–2867, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. Cróquer and E. Weil, “Spatial variability in distribution and prevalence of Caribbean scleractinian coral and octocoral diseases. II. Genera-level analysis,” Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 209–222, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. Cróquer and E. Weil, “Changes in Caribbean coral disease prevalence after the 2005 bleaching event,” Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, vol. 87, no. 1-2, pp. 33–43, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. C. S. Rogers, E. Muller, T. Spitzack, and J. Miller, “Extensive coral mortality in the US Virgin Islands in 2005/2006: a review of the evidence for synergy among thermal stress, coral bleaching and disease,” Caribbean Journal of Science, vol. 45, no. 2-3, pp. 204–214, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. T. A. Oliver and S. R. Palumbi, “Do fluctuating temperature environments elevate coral thermal tolerance?” Coral Reefs, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 429–440, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. C. S. Rogers, “Words matter: recommendations for clarifying coral disease nomenclature and terminology,” Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 167–175, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. E. M. Muller, C. S. Rogers, A. S. Spitzack, and R. van Woesik, “Bleaching increases likelihood of disease on Acropora palmata (Lamarck) in Hawksnest Bay, St John, US Virgin Islands,” Coral Reefs, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 191–195, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. D. Harvell, S. Altizer, I. M. Cattadori, L. Harrington, and E. Weil, “Climate change and wildlife diseases: when does the host matter the most?” Ecology, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 912–920, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. R. Berkelmans, G. De'ath, S. Kininmonth, and W. J. Skirving, “A comparison of the 1998 and 2002 coral bleaching events on the Great Barrier Reef: spatial correlation, patterns, and predictions,” Coral Reefs, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 74–83, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. H. A. Oxenford, R. Roach, A. Brathwaite et al., “Quantitative observations of a major coral bleaching event in Barbados, Southeastern Caribbean,” Climatic Change, vol. 87, no. 3-4, pp. 435–449, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. J. Miller, E. Muller, C. Rogers et al., “Coral disease following massive bleaching in 2005 causes 60% decline in coral cover on reefs in the US Virgin Islands,” Coral Reefs, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 925–937, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. S. Ban, N. A. J. Graham, and S. R. Connolly, “Relationships between temperature, bleaching and white syndrome on the Great Barrier Reef,” Coral Reefs, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. J. F. Bruno, L. E. Petes, C. D. Harvell, and A. Hettinger, “Nutrient enrichment can increase the severity of coral diseases,” Ecology Letters, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1056–1061, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. K. P. Sutherland, J. W. Porter, J. W. Turner et al., “Human sewage identified as likely source of white pox disease of the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1122–1131, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. Haapkylä, R. K. F. Unsworth, M. Flavell, D. G. Bourne, B. Schaffelke, and B. L. Willis, “Seasonal rainfall and runoff promote coral disease on an inshore reef,” PloS ONE, vol. 6, no. 2, Article ID e16893, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. E. Weil, A. Croquer, and I. Urreiztieta, “Temporal variability and impact of coral diseases and bleaching in La Parguera, Puerto Rico from 2003–2007,” Caribbean Journal of Science, vol. 45, no. 2-3, pp. 221–246, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. E. Weil and C. S. Rogers, “Coral reef diseases in the Atlantic-Caribbean,” in Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition, Z. Dubinsky and N. Stambler, Eds., pp. 465–491, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  94. B. L. Willis, C. A. Page, and E. A. Dinsdale, “Coral disease on the Great Barrier Reef,” in Coral Health and Disease, E. Rosenberg and L. Loya, Eds., Chapter 3, pp. 69–104, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  95. T. McClanahan, “Coral bleaching, diseases and mortality in the Western Indian Ocean,” in Coral Health and Disease, E. Rosenberg and Y. Loya, Eds., Chapter 7, pp. 157–176, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  96. L. L. Richardson, G. W. Smith, K. B. Ritchie, and R. G. Carlton, “Integrating microbiological, microsensor, molecular, and physiologic techniques in the study of coral disease pathogenesis,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 460, pp. 71–89, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. D. Harvell, E. Jordán-Dahlgren, S. Merkel et al., “Coral disease, environmental drivers, and the balance between coral and microbial associates,” Oceanography, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 172–195, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  98. T. M. Work, L. L. Richardson, T. L. Reynolds, and B. L. Willis, “Biomedical and veterinary science can increase our understanding of coral disease,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 362, no. 2, pp. 63–70, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. M. J. H. van Oppen and R. D. Gates, “Conservation genetics and the resilience of reef-building corals,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 15, no. 13, pp. 3863–3883, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. R. V. Thurber, D. Willner-Hall, B. Rodriguez-Mueller et al., “Metagenomic analysis of stressed coral holobionts,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 2148–2163, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. P. J. Edmunds and R. C. Carpenter, “Recovery of Diadema antillarum reduces macroalgal cover and increases abundance of juvenile corals on a Caribbean reef,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 9, pp. 5067–5071, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. R. C. Carpenter and P. J. Edmunds, “Local and regional scale recovery of Diadema promotes recruitment of scleractinian corals,” Ecology letters, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 271–280, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. A. L. Zubillaga, L. M. Márquez, A. Cróquer, and C. Bastidas, “Ecological and genetic data indicate recovery of the endangered coral Acropora palmata in Los Roques, Southern Caribbean,” Coral Reefs, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 63–72, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. M. J. C. Crabbe, “Scleractinian coral population size structures and growth rates indicate coral resilience on the fringing reefs of North Jamaica,” Marine Environmental Research, vol. 67, no. 4-5, pp. 189–198, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. H. M. Guzman and J. Cortés, “Reef recovery 20 years after the 1982–1983 El Niño massive mortality,” Marine Biology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 401–411, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. G. Diaz-Pulido, L. J. McCook, S. Dove et al., “Doom and boom on a resilient reef: climate change, algal overgrowth and coral recovery,” PloS ONE, vol. 4, no. 4, Article ID e5239, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. A. Halford, A. J. Cheal, D. Ryan, and D. M. Williams, “Resilience to large-scale disturbance in coral and fish assemblages on the Great Barrier Reef,” Ecology, vol. 85, no. 7, pp. 1892–1905, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. S. V. Smith, W. J. Kimmerer, E. A. Laws, R. E. Brock, and T. W. Walsh, “Kaneohe Bay sewage diversion experiment: perspectives on ecosystem responses to nutritional perturbation,” Pacific Science, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 279–395, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. C. L. Hunter and C. W. Evans, “Reefs in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: two centuries of western influence and two decades of data,” Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs Miami 1993, pp. 339–345, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. J. Stimson and E. Conklin, “Potential reversal of a phase shift: the rapid decrease in the cover of the invasive green macroalga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa Forsskål on coral reefs in Kāne'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i,” Coral Reefs, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 717–726, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. J. A. Idjadi, S. C. Lee, J. F. Bruno, W. F. Precht, L. Allen-Requa, and P. J. Edmunds, “Rapid phase-shift reversal on a Jamaican coral reef,” Coral Reefs, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 209–211, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. J. A. Idjadi, R. N. Haring, and W. F. Precht, “Recovery of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum promotes scleractinian coral growth and survivorship on shallow Jamaican reefs,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 403, pp. 91–100, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. N. J. Quinn and B. L. Kojis, “The recent collapse of a rapid phase-shift reversal on a Jamaican north coast coral reef after the 2005 bleaching event,” Revista de Biologia Tropical, vol. 56, supplement 1, pp. 149–159, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  114. A. J. Cheal, M. A. MacNeil, E. Cripps et al., “Coral-macroalgal phase shifts or reef resilience: links with diversity and functional roles of herbivorous fishes on the Great Barrier Reef,” Coral Reefs, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1005–1015, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. K. Osborne, A. M. Dolman, S. C. Burgess, and K. A. Johns, “Disturbance and the dynamics of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef (1995–2009),” PloS ONE, vol. 6, no. 3, Article ID e17516, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. M. L. Berumen and M. S. Pratchett, “Recovery without resilience: persistent disturbance and long-term shifts in the structure of fish and coral communities at Tiahura Reef, Moorea,” Coral Reefs, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 647–653, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. W. B. Gladfelter, “White-band disease in Acropora palmata: implications for the structure and growth of shallow reefs,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 32, pp. 639–643, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  118. A. W. Bruckner, “Proceedings of the Caribbean Acropora workshop: potential application of the U.S. Endangered Species Act as a conservation strategy,” NOAA Tech Memo NMFS-OPR-24, Silver Spring, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  119. N. A. J. Graham, K. L. Nash, and J. T. Kool, “Coral reef recovery dynamics in a changing world,” Coral Reefs, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 283–294, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. P. J. Edmunds, “Long-term dynamics of coral reefs in St. John, US Virgin Islands,” Coral Reefs, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 357–367, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. E. Stokstad, “Despite progress, biodiversity declines,” Science, vol. 329, no. 5997, pp. 1272–1273, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. K. E. Carpenter, M. Abrar, G. Aeby et al., “One-third of reef-building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts,” Science, vol. 321, no. 5888, pp. 560–563, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. T. P. Hughes, N. A. J. Graham, J. B. C. Jackson, P. J. Mumby, and R. S. Steneck, “Rising to the challenge of sustaining coral reef resilience,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 633–642, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. E. McLeod, R. Salm, A. Green, and J. Almany, “Designing marine protected area networks to address the impacts of climate change,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 362–370, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. M. L. Baskett, R. M. Nisbet, C. V. Kappel, P. J. Mumby, and S. D. Gaines, “Conservation management approaches to protecting the capacity for corals to respond to climate change: a theoretical comparison,” Global Change Biology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1229–1246, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. T. McClanahan, A. Baker, and M. Ateweberhan, Preparing for Climate Change in the Western Indian Ocean—Identifying Climate Refugia, Biodiversity Responses, and Preferred Management, WIOMSA Book Series 12, 2011.
  127. T. R. McClanahan, J. M. Maina, and N. A. Muthiga, “Associations between climate stress and coral reef diversity in the western Indian Ocean,” Global Change Biology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 2023–2032, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. I. M. Côté and E. S. Darling, “Rethinking ecosystem resilience in the face of climate change,” PLoS Biology, vol. 8, no. 7, Article ID e1000438, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. J. R. Guest, A. H. Baird, A. J. Maynard et al., “Contrasting patterns of coral bleaching susceptibility in 2010 suggest an adaptive response to thermal stress,” PloS ONE, vol. 7, no. 3, Article ID e33343, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  130. P. Marshall and H. Schuttenberg, Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, Australia, 2006.
  131. C. S. Rogers, “Sublethal and lethal effects of sediments applied to common Caribbean reef corals in the field,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 378–382, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. F. S. Chapin, E. S. Zavaleta, V. T. Eviner et al., “Consequences of changing biodiversity,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6783, pp. 234–242, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. R. Berkelmans, “Bleaching and mortality thresholds: how much is too much?” in Coral Bleaching, M. van Oppen and J. M. Lough, Eds., Chapter 7, pp. 103–119, Springer, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  134. A. C. Baker, C. J. Starger, T. R. McClanahan, and P. W. Glynn, “Coral reefs: corals' adaptive response to climate change,” Nature, vol. 430, no. 7001, article 741, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. R. Rowan, “Thermal adaptation in reef coral symbionts,” Nature, vol. 430, no. 7001, article 742, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. R. Berkelmans and M. J. H. van Oppen, “The role of zooxanthellae in the thermal tolerance of corals: a “nugget of hope” for coral reefs in an era of climate change,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 273, no. 1599, pp. 2305–2312, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. S. A. Wooldridge and T. J. Done, “Improved water quality can ameliorate effects of climate change on corals,” Ecological Applications, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1492–1499, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. J. E. Carilli, R. D. Norris, B. A. Black, S. M. Walsh, and M. McField, “Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching,” PloS ONE, vol. 4, no. 7, Article ID e6324, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. P. J. Mumby and A. Hastings, “The impact of ecosystem connectivity on coral reef resilience,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 854–862, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. J. Sobel and C. Dahlgren, Marine Reserves: A Guide to Science, Design and Use, Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2004.
  141. B. S. Halpern and R. R. Warner, “Marine reserves have rapid and lasting effects,” Ecology Letters, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 361–366, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. R. B. Aronson and W. F. Precht, “Conservation, precaution, and Caribbean reefs,” Coral Reefs, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 441–450, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. T. P. Hughes, M. J. Rodrigues, D. R. Bellwood et al., “Phase Shifts, Herbivory, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs to Climate Change,” Current Biology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 360–365, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. L. J. McCook, T. Ayling, M. Cappo et al., “Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: a globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 43, pp. 18278–18285, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. P. J. Mumby and A. R. Harborne, “Marine reserves enhance the recovery of corals on Caribbean reefs,” PloS ONE, vol. 5, no. 1, Article ID e8657, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. K. L. Kramer and K. L. Heck, “Top-down trophic shifts in Florida Keys patch reef marine protected areas,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 349, pp. 111–123, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. B. E. Huntington, M. Karnauskas, and D. Lirman, “Corals fail to recover at a Caribbean marine reserve despite ten years of reserve designation,” Coral Reefs, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1077–1085, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  148. J. Claudet and P. Guidetti, “Improving assessments of marine protected areas,” Aquatic Conservation, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 239–242, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. V. R. Coelho and C. Manfrino, “Coral community decline at a remote Caribbean island: marine no-take reserves are not enough,” Aquatic Conservation, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 666–685, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. L. J. Raymundo, A. R. Halford, A. P. Maypa, and A. M. Kerr, “Functionally diverse reef-fish communities ameliorate coral disease,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 40, pp. 17067–17070, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. G. P. Jones, M. I. McCormick, M. Srinivasan, and J. V. Eagle, “Coral decline threatens fish biodiversity in marine reserves,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 21, pp. 8251–8253, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. L. Alvarez-Filip, N. K. Dulvy, J. A. Gill, I. M. Côté, and A. R. Watkinson, “Flattening of Caribbean coral reefs: region-wide declines in architectural complexity,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 276, no. 1669, pp. 3019–3025, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. C. Dryden, J. Cortes, S. Newman, C. Sanchez, S. Williams, and N. Polunin, “Future of reefs in a changing environment: an ecosystem approach to managing Caribbean coral reefs in the face of climate change. Preliminary report on the relationship between architectural complexity and reef biodiversity,” 7th Framework Programme, Force Project. (10 pp), 2012.
  154. D. L. Ballantine, R. S. Appeldoorn, P. Yoshioka et al., “Biology and ecology of Puerto Rican coral reefs,” in Coral Reefs of the USA, B. Riegl and R. E. Dodge, Eds., Chapter 9, pp. 375–406, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  155. J. C. Ogden, “Marine managers look upstream for connections,” Science, vol. 278, no. 5342, pp. 1414–1415, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. C. M. Roberts, “Connectivity and management of Caribbean coral reefs,” Science, vol. 278, no. 5342, pp. 1454–1457, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. S. J. Pittman, C. Caldow, S. D. Hile, and M. E. Monaco, “Using seascape types to explain the spatial patterns of fish in the mangroves of SW Puerto Rico,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 348, pp. 273–284, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. P. L. Munday, J. M. Leis, J. M. Lough et al., “Climate change and coral reef connectivity,” Coral Reefs, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 379–395, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. R. K. Cowen, C. B. Paris, and A. Srinivasan, “Scaling of connectivity in marine populations,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5760, pp. 522–527, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. J. C. Ogden, “Ecosystem interactions in the tropical coastal seascape,” in Life and Death of Coral Reefs, C. Birkeland, Ed., Chapman and Hall, New York, NY, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  161. J. C. Ogden and E. H. Gladfelter, Eds., Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds, and Mangroves: Their Interaction in the Coastal Zones of the Caribbean: Report of a Workshop Held at West Indies Laboratory, May 1982, vol. 23 of Reports in Marine Science, UNESCO, 1983.
  162. P. J. Mumby, A. J. Edwards, J. E. Arias-González et al., “Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean,” Nature, vol. 427, no. 6974, pp. 533–536, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. I. Nagelkerken, G. van der Velde, M. W. Gorissen, G. J. Meijer, T. Van't Hof, and C. Den Hartog, “Importance of mangroves, seagrass beds and the shallow coral reef as a nursery for important coral reef fishes, using a visual census technique,” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 31–44, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. I. Valiela, J. L. Bowen, and J. K. York, “Mangrove forests: one of the world's threatened major tropical environments,” Bioscience, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 807–815, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. E. L. Gilman, J. Ellison, N. C. Duke, and C. Field, “Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: a review,” Aquatic Botany, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 237–250, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. S. L. Palacios and R. C. Zimmerman, “Response of eelgrass Zostera marina to CO2 enrichment: possible impacts of climate change and potential for remediation of coastal habitats,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 344, pp. 1–13, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. B. S. Halpern, S. Walbridge, K. A. Selkoe et al., “A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems,” Science, vol. 319, no. 5865, pp. 948–952, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. C. S. Rogers and J. J. Herlan, “Life on the edge: corals in mangroves and climate change,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, p. 5, Cairns, Australia, July 2012.
  169. M. Reaka-Kudla, “The global biodiversity of coral reefs: a comparison with rain forests,” in Biodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting our Biological Resources, M. Reaka-Kudla, D. Wilson, and E. Wilson, Eds., Chapter 7, pp. 83–108, Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  170. N. Knowlton, “Ecology: coral reef biodiversity—habitat size matters,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5521, pp. 1493–1495, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. J. H. Ausubel, D. T. Crist, and P. E. Waggoner, Eds., First Census of Marine Life 2010: Highlights of a decade of discovery. Census of Marine Life, Washington, DC, USA, 2010.
  172. G. Paulay, “Diversity and distribution of reef organisms,” in Life and Death of Coral Reefs, C. Birkeland, Ed., Chapter 14, pp. 298–353, Chapman and Hall, New York, NY, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  173. K. J. Willis and S. A. Bhagwat, “Biodiversity and climate change,” Science, vol. 326, no. 5954, pp. 806–807, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. B. E. Brown and A. R. Cossins, “The potential for temperature acclimatisation of reef corals in the face of climate change,” in Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition, Z. Dubinsky and N. Stambler, Eds., pp. 421–433, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  175. P. A. Marshall and A. H. Baird, “Bleaching of corals on the Great Barrier Reef: differential susceptibilities among taxa,” Coral Reefs, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 155–163, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. T. McClanahan, E. Weil, J. Cortes, A. H. Baird, and M. Ateweberhan, “Consequences of coral bleaching for sessile reef organisms,” in Ecological Studies: Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences, M. H. van Oppen and J. M. Lough, Eds., Springer, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  177. S. L. Coles and B. E. Brown, “Coral bleaching—capacity for acclimatization and adaptation,” Advances in Marine Biology, vol. 46, pp. 183–223, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. A. C. Baker, “Reef corals bleach to survive change,” Nature, vol. 411, no. 6839, pp. 765–766, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. R. A. Kinzie III, M. Takayama, S. R. Santos, and M. A. Coffroth, “The adaptive bleaching hypothesis: experimental tests of critical assumptions,” Biological Bulletin, vol. 200, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. R. van Woesik, P. Houk, A. L. Isechal, J. W. Idechong, S. Victor, and Y. Golbuu, “Climate-change refugia in the sheltered bays of Palau: analogs of future reefs,” Ecology and Evolution, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 2474–2484, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  181. A. G. Grottoli, L. J. Rodrigues, and J. E. Palardy, “Heterotrophic plasticity and resilience in bleached corals,” Nature, vol. 440, no. 7088, pp. 1186–1189, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. E. M. Borell, A. R. Yuliantri, K. Bischof, and C. Richter, “The effect of heterotrophy on photosynthesis and tissue composition of two scleractinian corals under elevated temperature,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 364, no. 2, pp. 116–123, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. I. B. Baums, M. W. Miller, and M. E. Hellberg, “Geographic variation in clonal structure in a reef-building Caribbean coral, Acropora palmata,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 503–519, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. S. V. Vollmer and D. I. Kline, “Natural disease resistance in threatened staghorn corals,” PloS ONE, vol. 3, no. 11, Article ID e3718, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. A. Salih, A. Larkum, G. Cox, M. Kühl, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Fluorescent pigments in corals are photoprotective,” Nature, vol. 408, no. 6814, pp. 850–853, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. B. Walker, “Conserving biological diversity through ecosystem resilience,” Conservation Biology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 747–752, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. M. Nyström, “Redundancy and response diversity of functional groups: implications for the resilience of coral reefs,” Ambio, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 30–35, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. N. A. J. Graham, S. K. Wilson, S. Jennings et al., “Lag effects in the impacts of mass coral bleaching on coral reef fish, fisheries, and ecosystems,” Conservation Biology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1291–1300, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. S. C. Cardoso, M. C. Soares, H. A. Oxenford, and I. M. Côté, “Interspecific differences in foraging behaviour and functional role of Caribbean parrotfish,” Marine Biodiversity Records, vol. 2, pp. 1–6, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  190. D. E. Burkepile and M. E. Hay, “Feeding complementarity versus redundancy among herbivorous fishes on a Caribbean reef,” Coral Reefs, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 351–362, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. C. R. C. Sheppard, M. Spalding, C. Bradshaw, and S. Wilson, “Erosion vs. recovery of coral reefs after 1998 El Niño: Chagos reefs, Indian Ocean,” Ambio, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 40–48, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. N. A. J. Graham, S. K. Wilson, S. Jennings, N. V. C. Polunin, J. P. Bijoux, and J. Robinson, “Dynamic fragility of oceanic coral reef ecosystems,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 22, pp. 8425–8429, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. S. K. Wilson, N. A. J. Graham, M. S. Pratchett, G. P. Jones, and N. V. C. Polunin, “Multiple disturbances and the global degradation of coral reefs: are reef fishes at risk or resilient?” Global Change Biology, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 2220–2234, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. D. J. Booth and G. A. Beretta, “Changes in a fish assemblage after a coral bleaching event,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 245, pp. 205–212, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. J. A. Kleypas and K. K. Yates, “Coral reefs and ocean acidification,” Oceanography, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 108–117, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  196. G. De'ath, J. M. Lough, and K. E. Fabricius, “Declining coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef,” Science, vol. 323, no. 5910, pp. 116–119, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. R. P. M. Bak, G. Nieuwland, and E. H. Meesters, “Coral growth rates revisited after 31 years: what is causing lower extension rates in Acropora palmata?” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 287–294, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. K. R. N. Anthony, D. I. Kline, G. Diaz-Pulido, S. Dove, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 45, pp. 17442–17446, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. A. Tribollet, C. Godinot, M. J. Atkinson, and C. Langdon, “Seawater carbonate chemistry and dissolution rates by boring microflora during ex situ experiments with dead corals (Porites lobata),” 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  200. F. Rohwer, V. Seguritan, F. Azam, and N. Knowlton, “Diversity and distribution of coral-associated bacteria,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 243, pp. 1–10, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  201. T. D. Ainsworth, R. V. Thurber, and R. D. Gates, “The future of coral reefs: a microbial perspective,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 233–240, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. C. A. Kellogg, “Tropical Archaea: diversity associated with the surface microlayer of corals,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 273, pp. 81–88, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. R. W. Buddemeier and D. G. Fautin, “Coral bleaching as an adaptive mechanism—a testable hypothesis,” Bioscience, vol. 43, pp. 320–326, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  204. R. D. Gates and P. J. Edmunds, “The physiological mechanisms of acclimatization in tropical reef corals,” American Zoologist, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 30–43, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. D. G. Fautin and R. W. Buddemeier, “Adaptive bleaching: a general phenomenon,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 530-531, pp. 459–467, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. M. L. Baskett, S. D. Gaines, and R. M. Nisbet, “Symbiont diversity may help coral reefs survive moderate climate change,” Ecological Applications, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3–17, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  207. M. Stat and R. D. Gates, “Clade D Symbiodinium in scleractinian corals: a, “nugget” of hope, a selfish opportunist, an ominous sign, or all of the above?” Journal of Marine Biology, vol. 2011, Article ID 730715, 9 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  208. A. H. Baird, R. Bhagooli, P. J. Ralph, and S. Takahashi, “Coral bleaching: the role of the host,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 16–20, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  209. P. W. Sammarco and K. B. Strychar, “Effects of climate change/global warming on coral reefs: adaptation/exaptation in corals, evolution in zooxanthellae, and biogeographic shifts,” Environmental Bioindicators, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 9–45, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  210. R. B. Aronson and W. F. Precht, “White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 460, pp. 25–38, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. H. A. Lessios, “Mass mortality of Diadema antillarum in the Caribbean: what have we learned?” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 19, pp. 371–393, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  212. M. Anderson, H. Lund, E. H. Gladfelter, and M. Davis, “Ecological community type maps and biological community descriptions for Buck Island Reef National Monument and proposed marine park sites in the British Virgin Islands,” Biosphere Reserve Research Report 4 VIRMC/NPS, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  213. J. C. Bythell, Z. M. Hillis-Starr, and C. S. Rogers, “Local variability but landscape stability in coral reef communities following repeated hurricane impacts,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 204, pp. 93–100, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  214. C. Menza, M. Kendall, C. Rogers, and J. Miller, “A deep reef in deep trouble,” Continental Shelf Research, vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 2224–2230, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  215. P. Bongaerts, T. Ridgway, E. M. Sampayo, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Assessing the “deep reef refugia” hypothesis: focus on Caribbean reefs,” Coral Reefs, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 1–19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  216. T. B. Smith, J. Blondeau, R. S. Nemeth et al., “Benthic structure and cryptic mortality in a Caribbean mesophotic coral reef bank system, the Hind Bank Marine Conservation District, U.S. Virgin Islands,” Coral Reefs, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 289–308, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  217. C. Wilkinson, Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 1998, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia, 1998.
  218. B. L. Kojis and N. J. Quinn, “Seasonal and depth variation in fecundity of Acropora palifera at two reefs in Papua New Guinea,” Coral Reefs, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 165–172, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  219. R. N. Ginsburg and F. G. W. Smith, “Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs: health, hazards and history, June 1993,” 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  220. J. A. Maynard, A. H. Baird, and M. S. Pratchett, “Revisiting the Cassandra syndrome; the changing climate of coral reef research,” Coral Reefs, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 745–749, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  221. R. P. Kelly, M. M. Foley, W. S. Fisher et al., “Mitigating local causes of ocean acidification with existing laws,” Science, vol. 332, no. 6033, pp. 1036–1037, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  222. D. Tilman, R. M. May, C. L. Lehman, and M. A. Nowak, “Habitat destruction and the extinction debt,” Nature, vol. 371, no. 6492, pp. 65–66, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  223. R. J. Miller, A. J. Adams, N. B. Ogden, J. C. Ogden, and J. P. Ebersole, “Diadema antillarum 17 years after mass mortality: is recovery beginning on St. Croix?” Coral Reefs, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 181–187, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  224. Y. Loya, K. Sakai, K. Yamazato, Y. Nakano, H. Sambali, and R. van Woesik, “Coral bleaching: the winners and the losers,” Ecology Letters, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 122–131, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  225. D. M. Thompson and R. van Woesik, “Corals escape bleaching in regions that recently and historically experienced frequent thermal stress,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 276, no. 1669, pp. 2893–2901, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  226. B. Walker, S. Barrett, S. Polasky et al., “Looming global-scale failures and missing institutions,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5946, pp. 1345–1346, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  227. G. H. Rau, E. L. McLeod, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “The need for new ocean conservation strategies in a high-carbon dioxide world,” Nature Climate Change, vol. 2, pp. 720–724, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar