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ISRN Oncology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 740615, 7 pages
Review Article

New Insights into Biology, Prognostic Factors, and Current Therapeutic Strategies in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

1Department of Experimental Hematology, Medical University of Lodz, Ciolkowskiego 2 Street, 93-510 Lodz, Poland
2Department of Hematology, Medical University of Lodz and Copernicus Memorial Hospital, Ciolkowskiego 2 Street, 93-510 Lodz, Poland

Received 4 June 2013; Accepted 20 June 2013

Academic Editors: P. Clavère, L. Hunakova, H. T. Khong, and S. Mohanam

Copyright © 2013 Piotr Smolewski et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the clonal proliferation and accumulation of mature B lymphocytes. CLL cells show an antiapoptotic profile, suggesting the important role of apoptosis inhibition in the disease development. However, there is some population of proliferating CLL cells, which may also play a role in progression of the disease. There are several newer, biological prognostic factors in CLL. Currently, cytogenetic abnormalities with different prognostic values seem to be the most biologically relevant. During the last decades, the treatment of CLL has been significantly changed. Different strategies such as monotherapy with chlorambucil and purine nucleoside analogues (PNA) used alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide have been introduced. Most recently, immunochemotherapy with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab, combined with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide, became a gold standard of first-line treatment in eligible CLL patients. Currently, new treatment strategies including new monoclonal antibodies, bendamustine, lenalidomide, or inhibitors of several cell signaling pathways are under clinical studies in resistant/relapsed CLL patients. Moreover, allogeneic stem cell transplantation has to be considered, especially in younger high risk patients, for example, those who are resistant to PNA or those with 17p deletion. In this paper, we present the most important recent advances in CLL biology and treatment.