Table of Contents
ISRN Infectious Diseases
Volume 2013, Article ID 759208, 6 pages
Review Article

Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacilli in Lebanon

Clinical Microbiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Medical Sciences, University of Balamand, P.O. Box 100, Tripoli, Lebanon

Received 14 April 2012; Accepted 5 June 2012

Academic Editors: J.-M. Bart, C.-K. Fan, and A. P. Gibb

Copyright © 2013 S. E. Salem et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Several studies have reported the isolation of resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Lebanon. However, those studies are new and scarce as compared to worldwide data and mostly restricted to single center studies. In this review, we attempt to provide a reliable and comprehensive report describing the current situation and providing prospects for bacterial resistance in Lebanon. Several studies have shown that Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains are being increasingly reported. Moreover, 2.15% of E. coli and 7.84% of K. pneumoniae isolates have shown carbapenem resistance and up to 30% of isolated E. coli strains were found to be Multi-Drug Resistant. Molecular studies showed that the most widespread β-Lactamases in Lebanon are of the CTX-M-15 and SHV types. In addition, K. pneumoniae strains producing metallo-β-Lactamase and Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase have been reported. Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii caused several nosocomial infections and some Acinetobacter baumannii strains were found to produce OXA-58 type ESBL. The few data addressing the rate of antibiotic consumption in Lebanon show a high rate of antibiotic misuse and abuse. In conclusion, there is a need for antibiotic stewardship programs and additional studies that go beyond the scope of single-center studies in Lebanon.