Table of Contents
ISRN Oncology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 759725, 7 pages
Review Article

The Biology of Ewing Sarcoma

Hospital for Special Surgery, 523 East 72nd Street, Suite 507, New York, NY 10021, USA

Received 14 November 2012; Accepted 16 December 2012

Academic Editors: B. Fang and I. Faraoni

Copyright © 2013 Keir A. Ross et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. The goal of this study was to review the current literature on the biology of Ewing's sarcoma, including current treatments and the means by which an understanding of biological mechanisms could impact future treatments. Methods. A search of PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration was performed. Both preclinical and clinical evidence was considered, but specific case reports were not. Primary research articles and reviews were analyzed with an emphasis on recent publications. Results. Ewing sarcoma is associated with specific chromosomal translocations and the resulting transcripts/proteins. Knowledge of the biology of Ewing sarcoma has been growing but has yet to significantly impact or produce new treatments. Localized cases have seen improvements in survival rates, but the same cannot be said of metastatic and recurrent cases. Standard surgical, radiation, and chemotherapy treatments are reaching their efficacy limits. Conclusion. Improving prognosis likely lies in advancing biomarkers and early diagnosis, determining a cell(s) of origin, and developing effective molecular therapeutics and antiangiogenic agents. Preclinical evidence suggests the utility of molecular therapies for Ewing sarcoma. Early clinical results also reveal potential for novel treatments but require further development and evaluation before widespread use can be advocated.