Table of Contents
ISRN Addiction
Volume 2013, Article ID 796570, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/796570
Research Article

Korean American Women's Experiences with Smoking and Factors Associated with Their Quit Intentions

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01652, USA
2Department of Social Welfare, Korean Bible University, Seoul 139-791, Republic of Korea
3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA

Received 10 June 2013; Accepted 30 June 2013

Academic Editors: J. Krejci, X. Liu, S. Rahman, and Y. Ye

Copyright © 2013 Sun S. Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Cigarette smoking among adults-United States, 2007,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 57, pp. 1221–1226, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  2. K. F. Baluja, J. Park, and D. Myers, “Inclusion of immigrant status in smoking prevalence statistics,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 642–646, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. S. Kim, D. Ziedonis, and K. W. Chen, “Tobacco use and dependence in Asian Americans: a review of the literature,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 169–184, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. S. Caraballo, S. L. Yee, J. Gfroerer, and S. A. Mirza, “Adult tobacco use among racial and ethnic groups living in the United States, 2002–2005,” Public Health Research, Practice and Policy, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1–9, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Li, S. C. Kwon, I. Weerasinghe, M. J. Rey, and C. Trinh-Shervin, “Smoking among Asian Americans: acculturation and gender in the context of tobacco control policies in New York city,” Health Promotion Practice, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. N. An, S. D. Cochran, V. M. Mays, and W. J. McCarthy, “Influence of American acculturation on cigarette smoking behaviors among Asian American subpopulations in California,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 579–587, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. J. Song, C. R. Hofstetter, M. F. Hovell et al., “Acculturation and health risk behaviors among Californians of Korean descent,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 147–156, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. California Health Interview Survey, California Health Interview Survey: Adult Survey, 2003, University of California Los Angeles Center for Health Policy Research, 2005.
  9. California Health Interview Survey, California Health Interview Survey: Adult Survey, 2009, University of California Los Angeles Center for Health Policy Research, 2011.
  10. A. E. Maxwell, C. M. Crespi, R. E. Alano, M. Sudan, and R. Bastani, “Health risk behaviors among five Asian American subgroups in California: identifying intervention priorities,” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 890–894, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Lew, J. M. Moskowitz, B. A. Wismer et al., “Correlates of cigarette smoking among Korean American adults in Alameda county, California,” Asian American and Pacific Islander Journal of Health, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 50–60, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Ji, C. R. Hofstetter, M. Hovell et al., “Smoking cessation patterns and predictors among adult Californians of Korean descent,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 59–69, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. K. Tong, H. Tang, J. Tsoh, C. Wong, and M. S. Chen Jr., “Smoke-free policies among Asian-American women: comparisons by education status,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 37, no. 2, supplement, pp. S144–S150, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. P. Allem, J. W. Ayers, V. L. Irvin, C. R. Hofstetter, and M. F. Hovell, “South Korean military service promotes smoking: a quasi-experimental design,” Yonsei Medical Journal, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 433–438, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. S. Kim, H. Son, and K. A. Nam, “The sociocultural context of Korean American men's smoking behavior,” Western Journal of Nursing Research, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 604–623, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. H. Jung-Choi, Y. H. Khang, and H. J. Cho, “Hidden female smokers in Asia: a comparison of self-reported with cotinine-verified smoking prevalence rates in representative national data from an Asian population,” Tobacco Control, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 536–542, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. I. Ajzen, Attitudes, Personality and Behavior, Dorsey Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1988.
  18. I. Ajzen, “The theory of planned behavior,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 179–211, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Juon, M. Kim, H. Han, J. P. Ryu, and W. Han, “Acculturation and cigarette smoking among Korean American men,” Yonsei Medical Journal, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 875–882, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. K. Kim, E. S. H. Yu, E. H. Chen, J. Kim, R. Brintnall, and S. Vance, “Smoking behavior, knowledge, and beliefs among Korean Americans,” Cancer Practice, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 223–230, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. S. Kim, H. Lee, P. Kiang, D. Kalman, and D. Ziedonis, “Factors associated with alcohol problems among Asian American college students: gender, ethnicity, smoking, and depressed mood,” Journal of Substance Use, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Bandura, “Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change,” Psychological Review, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 191–215, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. S. Kim, “Predictors of short-term smoking cessation among Korean American men,” Public Health Nursing, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 516–525, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Broadhead-Fearn and K. M. White, “The role of self-efficacy in predicting rule-following behaviors in shelters for homeless youth: a test of the theory of planned behavior,” Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 307–325, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. L. Tolma, B. M. Reininger, A. Evans, and J. Ureda, “Examining the theory of planned behavior and the construct of self-efficacy to predict mammography intention,” Health Education and Behavior, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 233–251, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Niven, A. Nevill, F. Sayers, and M. Cullen, “Predictors of rehabilitation intention and behavior following anterior circulate ligament surgery: an application of the theory of planned behavior,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, vol. 22, pp. 316–322, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  27. C. J. Armitage and M. Conner, “Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: a meta-analytic review,” British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 471–499, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. S. Kim, S. H. Kim, C. McKay, and D. Ziedonis, “Comparison of characteristics among Korean American male smokers between survey and cessation studies,” Open Journal of Prevention Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 293–300, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. Korean American Coalition-Census Information Center, Top 100 Cities/Places in the United States for the Korean Population, California State University, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 2000.
  30. C. R. Hofstetter, M. F. Hovell, J. Lee et al., “Tobacco use and acculturation among Californians of Korean descent: a behavioral epidemiological analysis,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 481–489, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. D. Heckathorn, “Respondent-driven sampling: a new approach to the study of hidden populations,” Social Problems, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 174–199, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. D. Heckathorn, “Respondent-driven sampling II: deriving valid population estimates from chain-referral samples of hidden populations,” Social Problems, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 11–34, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. S. Kim, H. Fang, J. DiFranza, D. Ziedonis, and G. Ma, “Gender differences in the fagerström test for nicotine dependence in Korean Americans,” Journal of Smoking Cessation, vol. 7, pp. 31–36, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  34. S. S. Kim, E. E. Gulick, K. A. Nam, and S. H. Kim, “Psychometric properties of the alcohol use disorders identification test: a Korean version,” Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 190–199, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. S. Kim, S. H. Kim, and E. E. Gulick, “Cross-cultural validation of a smoking abstinence self-efficacy scale in Korean American men,” Issues in Mental Health Nursing, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 122–130, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. A. McKee, S. S. O'Malley, P. Salovey, S. Krishnan-Sarin, and C. M. Mazure, “Perceived risks and benefits of smoking cessation: gender-specific predictors of motivation and treatment outcome,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 423–435, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. M. Suinn, K. Rickard-Figueroa, S. Lew, and P. Vigil, “The suinn-lew Asian self-identity acculturation scale: an initial report,” Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 401–407, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  38. F. T. Leong and E. L. Chou, “Developing brief versions of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale for counseling research,” Asian American & Pacific Islander Journal of Health, vol. 6, pp. 13–24, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  39. T. F. Babor, J. C. Higgins-Biddle, J. B. Saunders, and M. G. Monteiro, The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Guidelines for Use in Primary Care, World Health Organization, 2nd edition, 2001.
  40. T. F. Heatherton, L. T. Kozlowski, R. C. Frecker, and K. O. Fagerström, “The Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence: a revision of the fagerstrom tolerance questionnaire,” British Journal of Addiction, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 1119–1127, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. O. Prochaska and C. C. DiClemente, “Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 390–395, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. O. Jee, “Instrument development for the application of the theory of planned behavior,” Korean Journal of Nursing Query, vol. 2, pp. 102–117, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  43. W. F. Velicer, C. C. Diclemente, J. S. Rossi, and J. O. Prochaska, “Relapse situations and self-efficacy: an integrative model,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 271–283, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Miles and A. M. Huberman, An Expanded Sourcebook: Qualitative Data Analysis, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 1994.
  45. Y. S. Lincoln and E. G. Guba, Naturalistic Inquiry, Sage, Newbury Park, Calif, USA, 1985.
  46. A. Kaida, J. Edwards, N. Fraser-Lee et al., Smoking in the Capital Health Region—Report, Population Health Survey 2002, Capital Health, Edmonton, Canada, 2004.
  47. J. F. Etter and S. Sutton, “Assessing “stage of change” in current and former smokers,” Addiction, vol. 97, no. 9, pp. 1171–1182, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  48. A. H. Weinberger, S. Krishnan-Sarin, C. M. Mazure, and S. A. McKee, “Relationship of perceived risks of smoking cessation to symptoms of withdrawal, craving, and depression during short-term smoking abstinence,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 960–963, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Y. Tsoh, E. K. Tong, G. Gildengorin et al., “Individual and family factors associated with intention to quit among male vietnamese American smokers: implications for intervention development,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 294–301, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Shiffman, M. H. Balabanis, J. A. Paty et al., “Dynamic effects of self-efficacy on smoking lapse and relapse,” Health Psychology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 315–323, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. S. Kim, H. Son, and K. A. Nam, “Personal factors influencing Korean American men's smoking behavior: addiction, health, and age,” Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 35–41, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. S. Marks, K. Steyn, and E. Ratheb, Policy Brief: Tobacco Use by Black Women in Cape Town, Research for International Tobacco Control, 2001.
  53. D. Burgess, S. S. Fu, A. M. Joseph, D. K. Hatsukami, J. Solomon, and M. Van Ryn, “Understanding smoking and cessation among hmong smokers,” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 442–451, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. Y. Fang, G. X. Ma, S. M. Miller, Y. Tan, X. Su, and S. Shive, “A brief smoking cessation intervention for Chinese and Korean American smokers,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 321–324, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. S. Kim, M. S. Kwon, Y. C. Klessig, and D. Ziedonis, “Adapting tobacco dependence group therapy treatment for Korean Americans: a case report of pilot treatment program,” Journal of Groups in Addiction and Recovery, vol. 3, no. 1-2, pp. 93–108, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. D. Wu, G. X. Ma, K. Zhou, D. Zhou, A. Liu, and A. N. Poon, “The effect of a culturally tailored smoking cessation for Chinese American smokers,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1448–1457, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S.-H. Zhu, S. Wong, C. Stevens, D. Nakashima, and A. Gamst, “Use of a smokers' quitline by asian language speakers: results from 15 years of operation in California,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 846–852, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. J. Blumberg and J. V. Luke, Wireless Substitution: Early Release of Estimates from the National Health Interview Survey from July-December 2009, National Center for Health Statistics, 2010.