Figure 2: PCNA and BrdU staining of glyphosate and TPA-treated HaCaT cells. HaCaT cells were treated with glyphosate and TPA and were incubated for 72 h. (a) Cells were fixed, and PCNA was detected by immunofluorescence with an anti-PCNA antibody and FITC-labeled secondary antibody (green color). Pictures with green and blue colors were merged. DNA was stained with DAPI (blue color). (b) Cells were pulsed for 4 h with BrdU, fixed, and detected with an anti-BrdU antibody and rhodamine-labeled secondary antibody (red color). DNA was stained with DAPI (blue color). Pictures with red and blue colors were merged. Histogram represents the relative fluorescence intensity of PCNA and BrdU positive cells expressed as a ratio between control and treated HaCaT cells. For all panels, representative data from mean ± SD of at least three independent experiments are shown. versus control cells.