Table of Contents
ISRN Virology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 830396, 24 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/830396
Review Article

Japanese Encephalitis Virus Generated Neurovirulence, Antigenicity, and Host Immune Responses

Department of Zoology, D D U Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, India

Received 14 May 2013; Accepted 6 June 2013

Academic Editors: M. Magnani and C. Torti

Copyright © 2013 Ravi Kant Upadhyay. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In response to a JE virus attack, infected body cells start secretion of different cytokines and activate innate immune response. Virus starts neuronal invasion by entering into nerve cells and inflecting the central nervous system. It avoids exposure of body’s natural immunity and generates neurotrophic effects. Virus causes acute susceptibility to CNS and establishes encephalitis syndrome that results in very high fatality in children. In survivors, JEV inhibits the growth and proliferation of NCPs and imposes permanent neuronal disorders like cognitive, motor, and behavioral impairments. However, body cells start TCR mediated interactions, to recognize viral antigens with class I MHC complex on specific target cells, and operate mass killing of virus infected cells by increased CTL activity. Thus, both cell mediated and antibody interactions plays a central role in protection against JEV. In the present review article virus generated neurovirulence, antigenicity, and host immune responses are described in detail. More emphasis is given on diagnosis, clinical care, and active immunization with well-designed potential antiflavivirus vaccines. Further, for achieving an elite success against JEV, global eradication strategies are to be needed for making vaccination program more responsible and effective in endemic areas.