Table 4: Determinants of educational mismatch in the first employment.

VariablesaOdds ratios
Undereducated/
adequated
Overeducated/
adequated

Personal data
 Female0.8141.810
 Foreigner0.2504.000
Education
 Compulsory  education8.7860.004
 Upper secondary
 education
18.7092.336
 Lower vocational
 education
15.4782.204
 Upper vocational
 education
2.9241.323
Father’s education
 Secondary  education1.1110.757
 Higher education1.1130.720
Father’s employment status
 Manager1.1200.760
 Professional and
 technical
1.3770.817
 Skilled worker1.0731.297
 Nonskilled worker0.9061.750
 Unemployed0.9171.982
 Inactive1.1171.051
Length of the job search
 Less than 6 months2.0570.262
 Between 6 and 11
 months
0.7400.858
 More than a year0.5271.990
Year of leaving education
 19920.7721.247
 1993 0.5611.150
 19940.7381.613
 19950.7461.797
 19960.5011.818
 19970.7952.408
 19980.2783.321
 19990.2598.065
Region
 Aragón3.2000.279
 Asturias 0.6531.663
 Balearic Islands1.7260.277
 Canary Islands1.7940.502
 Cantabria0.6191.800
 Castilla-León1.1130.484
 Castilla La-Mancha1.8790.434
 Catalonia1.8210.386
 Valencian  community1.6130.362
 Extremadura0.8631.447
 Galicia0.9680.651
 Madrid1.7350.475
 Murcia0.9990.605
 Navarre1.7940.365
 The Basque Country1.8730.324
 La Rioja1.6090.191
Selection bias
 Lambda11.3460.018

Measures and tests of goodness of fit

−3.644.46
LR chi2984.42
Prob > chi20.0000
Pseudo 0.1190
6,909

Hausman test Ho: differences in coefficients not systematic
Omitted outcomeOvereducatedUndereducated

Chi25.230.68
Prob > chi21.0001.000

The omitted variables are male; Spanish; higher education; father is illiterate or has primary education; father is a clerk; no search for employment; leaving education in 1991; Andalusia.
In bold: Levels of signification ≥ 95%.
Source: Spanish Module on School to Work Transitions (2000) and own elaboration.