Table of Contents
ISRN AIDS
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 873939, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/873939
Research Article

Predictors of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV/AIDS Patients in the Upper West Region of Ghana

1Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana
2Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Allied Health, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana
3School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana
4Ghana Health Service, Upper West Regional Hospital, Wa, Upper West Region, Ghana

Received 24 September 2013; Accepted 20 October 2013

Academic Editors: R. Ansari and V. C. Bond

Copyright © 2013 Christian Obirikorang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. The effectiveness of ART interventions is only realized in maximal levels of adherence. A near perfect adherence level of >95% is required for the effective suppression of HIV/AIDS virus. The main objective of this study was to identify the sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors that facilitate adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV/AIDS patients. Methods. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May 2013 at the Upper West Regional Hospital, Wa. A total of 201 confirmed HIV 1 seropositive subjects (mean age years) receiving antiretroviral therapy were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5. A value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant for all statistical analyses. Results. Overall lifetime adherence was found to be 62.2% while medication adherence in the last six months, last three months, last month, and last week were 73.6%, 87.1%, 91.0%, and 86.0%, respectively. The study revealed a positive association between adherence to ART and immunological success, with nonadherence increasing the risk (OR (95% CI): 9.2 (3.2–26.9)) of immunological failure. Univariate logistic regression analysis of the data showed that other ailments and side effects of drug were negatively associated with adherence to ART whereas self-perceived wellness, family support, and regular followup were positively associated with adherence to ART. Conclusion. Regular attendance at followup and family support are vital factors for 100% lifetime medication adherence. Effective counseling sessions on adherence for patients on antiretroviral therapy are paramount for the realization of the purpose of antiretroviral therapy programmes in Ghana.