Table of Contents
ISRN Biomedical Imaging
Volume 2013, Article ID 910641, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/910641
Review Article

Optical Coherence Tomography in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Retinal Diseases

Department of Surgical Specialties and Medical Imaging, Discipline of Ophthalmology, “Iuliu Haţieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8 V. Babeş Street, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Received 24 December 2012; Accepted 14 January 2013

Academic Editors: V. Positano, R. Tadeusiewicz, and J. Tang

Copyright © 2013 Simona-Delia Ţălu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows the visualization of the retinal microarchitecture as cross-sectional or tomographic volumetric data. The usefulness of OCT in the management of various retinal diseases is validated by the possibility to allow early diagnosis and to help in the decision-making process. OCT is applied by two main methods: time domain (TD-OCT) and spectral domain (SD-OCT). The advantages of SD-OCT over TD-OCT are significant improvement of the image axial resolution, decreased acquisition times, reduction of motion artifacts, increased area of retinal sampling, and the possibility to create topographic maps by the three-dimensional evaluation of tissues. OCT is the most precise method to measure the central macular thickness (which is the most important practical parameter) in vivo. It has been demonstrated that there are differences in the retinal thickness measurements between OCT models, explained by the higher axial and transverse resolutions of the newer devices. Further research has led to significant improvements in OCT technology represented by ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT), swept source OCT (SS-OCT), enhanced depth imaging OCT (EDI-OCT), and adaptive optics. Technological progress in OCT imaging offered new perspectives for better understanding the retinal diseases, opening new avenues for the fundamental and clinical research. This is a review of the data in the literature concerning the evolution of OCT technology in the field of retinal imaging.