International Scholarly Research Notices / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Skin Photoaging and the Role of Antioxidants in Its Prevention

Table 1

Exogenous antioxidants with photoprotective or damage protective effects.

Antioxidants Outcome of the studyStudy

Ascorbic acidTopical vitamin C 5% cream applied for six months led to clinical improvement in the appearance of photoaged skin
Topical vitamin C stimulates the collagen-producing activity of the dermis
Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate administration immediately after exposure in hairless mice significantly delayed skin tumor formation and hyperplasia induced by chronic exposure to UV radiationElmore, 2005 [51]
Ascorbic acid was a photoprotectant when applied to mice and pig skin before exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiationElmore, 2005 [51]

Vitamin EUV-induced vitamin E depletionPacker and Valacchi, 2002 [52]
The interaction of vitamin E with the eicosanoid system may result in an anti-inflammatory effect and thereby complement the photoprotective effects of other antioxidants in the skinBoelsma et al., 2001 [53]
Vitamin E has skin barrier-stabilizing propertiesPacker et al., 2001 [54]

LycopeneUV light decreased skin lycopene concentrations more so than skin -carotene concentrationsRibaya-Mercadoet al., 1995 [55]
Lycopene protects against UV-induced erythema in humans

Carotenoids (carotene, -carotene, and carotenoid mix)Carotenoids are efficient in photoprotection, scavenging singlet oxygen, and peroxyl radicals. Supplements or a carotenoid-rich diet decreased sensitivity against UV-induced erythemaSies and Stahl, 2004 [56]
Supplementation with carotenoids contributes to basal protection of the skin but is not sufficient to obtain complete protection against severe UV irradiationStahl and Krutmann, 2006 [57]
Dietary beta-carotene has effect on wrinkles and elasticity, procollagen gene expression, and ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage in human skinCho et al., 2010 [58]
Erythema-protective effect of a carotenoid mix inhibited serum lipid peroxidation Heinrich et al., 1998 [59]
Heinrich et al., 2003 [60]
Lee et al., 2000 [61]
Presupplementation with -carotene before and during sunlight exposure provides protection against sunburnGollnick et al., 1996 [62]
Inhibition of UV-induced epidermal damage and tumor formation in mouse modelsMathews-Roth and Krinsky, 1987 [63]

TretinoinTopical tretinoin ameliorates the clinical signs of photoagingCordero, 1983 [64]
Kligman et al., 1986 [65]
The treatment of photodamaged skin with tretinoin increased collagen I formation.Griffiths et al., 1993 [66]
Topical tretinoin is safe and effective in the treatment of photodamageGilchrest, 1997 [67]
Improvement in photodamaged skinWeinstein et al., 1991 [68]
Topical tretinoin reduced the effects of photoagingVoorhees, 1990 [69]
Topical tretinoin in combination with sun protection as a useful approach to the treatment of sun-damaged skinLeyden, 1998 [70]

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)Topical application of CoQ10 has the beneficial effect of preventing photoagingHoppe et al., 1999 [71]
Coenzyme Q10 protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death and enhances the synthesis of basement membrane components in dermal and epidermal cellsMuta-Takada et al., 2009 [72]
CoQ10 was shown to reduce UVA-induced MMPs in cultured human dermal fibroblastsInui et al., 2008 [73]

GlutathioneGlutathione is a photoprotective agent in skin cellsConnor and Wheeler, 1987 [74]

ZincZn-treated fibroblasts were more resistant to UVR than cells grown in normal mediumRichard et al., 1993 [75]
Zn can positively influence the effects of oxidative stress on cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cellsTate et al., 1999 [76]

ResveratrolApplication of resveratrol to the skin of hairless mice effectively prevented the UVB-induced increase in skin thickness and the development of the skin edemaAfaq and Mukhtar, 2002 [77]

Green teaGreen tea polyphenols were shown to reduce UV light-induced oxidative stress and immunosuppression Katiyar et al., 2000 [78]
Topical treatment or oral consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) inhibits chemical carcinogen- or UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in different laboratory animal modelsKatiyar, 2003 [79]

Green tea or caffeineOral administration of green tea or caffeine in amounts equivalent to three or five cups of coffee per day to UVB-exposed mice increased levels of p53, slowed cell cycling, and increased apoptotic sun burn cells in the epidermisLu et al., 2008 [80]

SylimarinSilymarin strongly prevents both photocarcinogenesis and skin tumor promotion in mice Singh and Agarwal, 2002 [81]
Skin cancer chemopreventive effectsAhmad et al., 1998 [82]

GenisteinAntioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects on skin Wei et al., 1995 [83]

CocoaDietary flavanols from cocoa contribute to endogenous photoprotection, improve dermal blood circulation, and affect cosmetically relevant skin surface and hydration variablesHeinrich et al., 2006 [84]
Photoprotection against UV-induced erythemaHeinrich et al., 2006 [84]

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