Table of Contents
ISRN Orthopedics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 940615, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/940615
Review Article

Treatment of Ganglion Cysts

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Hong Kong Medical Centre, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong

Received 8 March 2013; Accepted 8 April 2013

Academic Editors: B. V. Darden and C. Mathoulin

Copyright © 2013 Matthew Suen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. P. Westbrook, A. B. Stephen, J. Oni, and T. R. C. Davis, “Ganglia: the patient's perception,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 566–567, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. E. Barnes, R. D. Larsen, and J. L. Posch, “Review of ganglia of the hand and wrist with analysis of surgical treatment,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 34, pp. 570–578, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. J. Tomlinson and J. Field, “Morbidity of hand and wrist ganglia,” Hand Surgery, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 5–8, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. V. McEvedy, “Simple ganglia,” The British Journal of Surgery, vol. 49, no. 218, pp. 585–594, 1962. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. L. Zachariae and H. Vibe-Hansen, “Ganglia. Recurrence rate elucidated by a follow up of 347 operated cases,” Acta Chirurgica Scandinavica, vol. 139, no. 7, pp. 625–628, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. J. Dias and K. Buch, “Palmar wrist ganglion: does intervention improve outcome: a prospective study of the natural history and patient-reported treatment outcomes,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 172–176, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. J. Dias, V. Dhukaram, and P. Kumar, “The natural history of untreated dorsal wrist ganglia and patient reported outcome 6 years after intervention,” Journal of Hand Surgery: European Volume, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 502–508, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. V. Nield and D. M. Evans, “Aspiration of ganglia,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 264, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. M. Esteban, Y. C. Oertel, M. Mendoza, and S. M. Knoll, “Fine needle aspiration in the treatment of ganglion cysts,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 691–693, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. V. N. Zubowicz and C. H. Ishii, “Management of ganglion cysts of the hand by simple aspiration,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 618–620, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. W. Varley, M. Needoff, T. R. C. Davis, and N. R. Clay, “Conservative management of wrist ganglia: aspiration versus steroid infiltration,” Journal of Hand Surgery: European Volume, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 636–637, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. B. Stephen, A. R. Lyons, and T. R. C. Davis, “A prospective study of two conservative treatments for ganglia of the wrist,” Journal of Hand Surgery: European Volume, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 104–105, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. W. Wright, W. P. Cooney, and D. M. Ilstrup, “Anterior wrist ganglion,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 954–958, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. W. H. Breidahl and R. S. Adler, “Ultrasound-guided injection of ganglia with coricosteroids,” Skeletal Radiology, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 635–638, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. S. Paul and D. H. Sochart, “Improving the results of ganglion aspiration by the use of hyaluronidase,” Journal of Hand Surgery: European Volume, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 219–221, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I. G. Mackie, C. B. Howard, and P. Wilkins, “The dangers of sclerotherapy in the treatment of ganglia,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 181–184, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Dogo, A. W. Hassan, and U. Babayo, “Treatment of ganglion using hypertonic saline as sclerosant,” West African Journal of Medicine, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 13–14, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. Gümüş, “A new sclerotherapy technique for the wrist ganglion: transcutaneous electrocauterization,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 42–44, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. A. A. Otu, “Wrist and hand ganglion treatment with hyaluronidase injection and fine needle aspiration: a tropical African perspective,” Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 405–407, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. J. O. Akkerhuis, M. van der Heijden, and P. R. G. Brink, “Hyaluronidase versus surgical excision of ganglia: a prospective, randomized clinical trial,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 256–258, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. A. Richman, R. H. Gelberman, W. D. Engber, P. B. Salamon, and D. J. Bean, “Ganglions of the wrist and digits: results of treatment by aspiration and cyst wall puncture,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1041–1043, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Korman, R. Pearl, and V. R. Hentz, “Efficacy of immobilization following aspiration of carpal and digital ganglions,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1097–1099, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. Limpaphayom and V. Wilairatana, “Randomized controlled trial between surgery and aspiration combined with methylprednisolone acetate injection plus wrist immobilization in the treatment of dorsal carpal ganglion,” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, vol. 87, no. 12, pp. 1513–1517, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. K. Gang and S. Makhlouf, “Treatment of ganglia by a thread technique,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 184–186, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Singhal, N. Angmo, S. Gupta, V. Kumar, and A. Mehtani, “Ganglion cysts of the wrist: a prospective study of a simple outpatient management,” Acta Orthopaedica Belgica, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 528–534, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. C. Angelides and P. F. Wallace, “The dorsal ganglion of the wrist: Its pathogenesis gross and microscopic anatomy, and surgical treatment,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 228–235, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Janzon and I. A. Niechajev, “Wrist ganglia. Incidence and recurrence rate after operation,” Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 53–56, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. R. Clay and D. A. Clement, “The treatment of dorsal wrist ganglia by radical excision,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 187–191, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. K. Watson, W. D. Rogers, and D. Ashmead IV, “Reevaluation of the cause of the wrist ganglion,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 812–817, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. K. Watson, W. D. Rogers, and D. Ashmead IV, “Reevaluation of the cause of the wrist ganglion,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 812–817, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. G. H. Jacobs and K. J. M. Govaers, “The volar wrist ganglion: just a simple cyst?” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 342–346, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. L. Filan and T. J. Herbert, “Recurrent dorsal wrist ganglion: aetiology and treatment,” Hand Surgery, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7–9, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. J. J. Hwang, C. A. Goldfarb, R. H. Gelberman, and M. I. Boyer, “The effect of dorsal carpal ganglion excision on the scaphoid shift test,” Journal of Hand Surgery: European Volume, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 106–108, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. K. Faithfull and B. G. Seeto, “The simple wrist ganglion—more than a minor surgical procedure?” Hand Surgery, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 139–143, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. Gündeş, Y. Cirpici, A. Sarlak, and S. Müezzinoglu, “Prognosis of wrist ganglion operations,” Acta Orthopaedica Belgica, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 363–367, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  36. L. Kang, E. Akelman, and A. P. C. Weiss, “Arthroscopic versus open dorsal ganglion excision: a prospective, randomized comparison of rates of recurrence and of residual pain,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 471–475, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Rocchi, A. Canal, F. Fanfani, and F. Catalano, “Articular ganglia of the volar aspect of the wrist: arthroscopic resection compared with open excision. A prospective randomised study,” Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 253–259, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. L. Osterman and J. Raphael, “Arthroscopic resection of dorsal ganglion of the wrist,” Hand Clinics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 7–12, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. Luchetti, A. Badia, M. Alfarano, J. Orbay, I. Indriago, and B. Mustapha, “Arthroscopic resection of dorsal wrist ganglia and treatment of recurrences,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 38–40, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. C. Ho, J. Griffiths, W. N. Lo, C. H. Yen, and L. K. Hung, “Current treatment of ganglion of the wrist,” Hand Surgery, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 49–58, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Nishikawa, S. Toh, H. Miura, K. Arai, and T. Irie, “Arthroscopic diagnosis and treatment of dorsal wrist ganglion,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 547–549, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. T. Shih, S. T. Hung, H. M. Lee, and C. M. Tan, “Dorsal ganglion of the wrist: results of treatment by arthroscopic resection,” Hand Surgery, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Rizzo, R. A. Berger, S. P. Steinmann, and A. T. Bishop, “Arthroscopic resection in the management of dorsal wrist ganglions: results with a minimum 2-year follow-up period,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 59–62, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Mathoulin, A. Hoyos, and J. Pelaez, “Arthroscopic resection of wrist ganglia,” Hand Surgery, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 159–164, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. Rocchi, A. Canal, J. Pelaez, F. Fanfani, and F. Catalano, “Results and complications in dorsal and volar wrist ganglia arthroscopic resection,” Hand Surgery, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 21–26, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. G. Edwards and J. A. Johansen, “Prospective outcomes and associations of wrist ganglion cysts resected arthroscopically,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 395–400, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. C. Y. Chen, W. C. Lee, K. Y. Hsu, Y. S. Chan, L. J. Yuan, and C. H. Chang, “Arthroscopic ganglionectomy through an intrafocal cystic portal for wrist ganglia,” Arthroscopy, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 617–622, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. W. E. Sanders, “The occult dorsal carpal ganglion,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 257–260, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. H. Duncan and R. C. Lewis, “Scapholunate instability following ganglion cyst excision. A case report,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 228, pp. 250–253, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. W. F. Kivett, F. M. Wood, G. E. Rauscher, and N. A. Taschler, “Does ganglionectomy destabilize the wrist over the long term?” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 466–468, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus