Table of Contents
Volume 2013, Article ID 954806, 10 pages
Review Article

Innate Immune Evasion Strategies by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA

Received 30 May 2013; Accepted 9 July 2013

Academic Editors: B. Joos, H. C. Mwandumba, and C. Petrovas

Copyright © 2013 Debjani Guha and Velpandi Ayyavoo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Host immune components play both beneficial and pathogenic roles in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. During the initial stage of viral infection, a complex network of innate immune factors are activated. For instance, the immune cells express a number of inflammatory proteins including cytokines, chemokines, and antiviral restriction factors. These factors, specifically, interferons (IFNs) play a crucial role in antiviral defense system by modulating the downstream signaling events, by inducing maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), and by activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and B and T cells. However, HIV-1 has evolved to utilize a number of strategies to overcome the antiviral effects of the host innate immune system. This review discusses the pathways and strategies utilized by HIV-1 to establish latent and persistent infection by defeating host’s innate defense system.