Table of Contents
ISRN Neurology
Volume 2013, Article ID 964572, 6 pages
Clinical Study

The Cooling Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines Interferon-Gamma, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, and Nitric Oxide in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

1Division of Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylül University, 35345 İzmir, Turkey
2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylül University, 35345 İzmir, Turkey
3Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylül University, 35345 İzmir, Turkey

Received 3 March 2013; Accepted 4 April 2013

Academic Editors: P. Annunziata, Y. Ohyagi, A. K. Petridis, L. Srivastava, and W. Zhao

Copyright © 2013 Turan Poyraz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in young adults. The proinflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN- ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- ), and nitric oxide (NO) which are known to be produced by inflammatory cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of MS. Some metabolic changes may have an effect on axonal transmission, and white blood cells NO and other inflammatory mediators such as cytokines may be affected from cooling process. In this study, we evaluated the effects of body cooling procedure on proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF- , IFN- , and NO levels. Twenty patients with MS were evaluated. Thirteen of the patients were women, 7 were men (mean age:  yrs.). Body temperature was reduced by an average of 1°C approximately in 1 hour with using the “Medivance Arctic Sun Temperature Management System” device. In our study, the decrease in TNF- , IFN- levels after the cooling procedure has no statistical significance, whereas the decrease in the mean level of NO level after the cooling procedure is mol/L which has statistical significance ( ). These results suggested that the decrease in NO level improves conduction block in demyelinated axonal segments after cooling procedure in multiple sclerosis.