Table of Contents
ISRN Electronics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 968749, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/968749
Research Article

Current Controlled Differential Difference Current Conveyor Transconductance Amplifier and Its Application as Wave Active Filter

1Department of Electronics and Communications, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Delhi 110042, India
2Department of Electronics and Communications, IMS Engineering College, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh-201009, India

Received 17 November 2012; Accepted 10 December 2012

Academic Editors: H. A. Alzaher and H.-C. Chien

Copyright © 2013 Neeta Pandey et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This paper proposes current controlled differential difference current conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCDDCCTA), a new active building block for analog signal processing. The functionality of the proposed block is verified via SPICE simulations using 0.25 μm TSMC CMOS technology parameters. The usefulness of the proposed element is demonstrated through an application, namely, wave filter. The CCDDCCTA-based wave equivalents are developed which use grounded capacitors and do not employ any resistors. The flexibility of terminal characteristics is utilized to suggest an alternate wave equivalents realization scheme which results in compact realization of wave filter. The feasibility of CCDDCCTA-based wave active filter is confirmed through simulation of a third-order Butterworth filter. The filter cutoff frequency can be tuned electronically via bias current.