Table of Contents
ISRN Tissue Engineering
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 973542, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/973542
Review Article

Cryopreservation-Induced Stress on Long-Term Preserved Articular Cartilage

1Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, NIT Rourkela, Odisha 769008, India
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT Rourkela, Odisha 769008, India

Received 4 June 2013; Accepted 20 June 2013

Academic Editors: X. Jiang and A. Vallés-Lluch

Copyright © 2013 Rajdeep Kaur et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Tissue engineered cartilage constructs have potential clinical applications in human healthcare. Their effective utilization is, however, hampered by the lack of an optimal cryopreservation procedure that ensures their availability as and when required at the patient’s bedside. Cryopreservation-induced stress represents a major barrier towards the cryopreservation of such tissue constructs, and they remain a scientific challenge despite the significant progress in the long-term storage and banking of isolated chondrocytes and thin cartilage tissue slices. These stresses are caused by intra- and extracellular ice crystallization, cryoprotectant (CPA) toxicity, suboptimal rates of cooling and warming, osmotic imbalance, and altered intracellular pH that might cause cellular death and/or a disruption of extracellular matrix (ECM). This paper reviews the cryopreservation-induced stresses on tissue engineered cartilages and discusses how they influence the integrity of the tissue during its long-term preservation. We have also reported how various antioxidants, vitamins, and plant extracts have been used to inhibit and overcome the stress during cryopreservation and provide promising results. Based on the reviewed information, the paper has also proposed some novel ways which might help in increasing the postthawing cell viability of cryopreserved cartilage.