Table of Contents
ISRN Veterinary Science
Volume 2013, Article ID 980465, 4 pages
Research Article

Histomorphological and Histochemical Observations of the Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) Tongue

1Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
2Department of Surgery and Obstetrics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

Received 7 November 2012; Accepted 1 January 2013

Academic Editors: E. Bártová, R. Harasawa, and A. Shamay

Copyright © 2013 Khalid Kamil Kadhim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Common myna tongue was studied histomorphologically and histochemically. Four tongues of adult birds were carried out macroscopically and microscopically. The tongue was triangular; the dorsum of the body had median groove. Two to three backward directed papillae were located on each side of the body-base junction. A single transverse row of pharyngeal papillae was located behind the laryngeal cleft. The parakeratinized mucosa covered the entire surface of the tongue except clearly keratinized band on the ventrolateral surface and the conical papillae. Compared with the lateral group (LG), the secretory cells of the medial group (MG) of the anterior lingual glands (ALG) and the posterior lingual glands (PLG) contained large amount of mucin. It was neutral mucin. However, the LG had weak acid mucin with carboxylated group. Meanwhile, the MG of the ALG and the PLG had strong acid mucin with both carboxylated and sulphated groups. In conclusion, the morphological observation of the common myna tongue showed some variation from the other birds. Histochemical results indicated the differences between the LG and MG of the anterior lingual glands. However, no difference was observed between the latter and the PLG.