Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014, Article ID 165424, 4 pages
Research Article

Modified Negative Staining of Heine for Fast and Inexpensive Screening of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora spp.

Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, 576104 Karnataka, India

Received 15 April 2014; Revised 3 July 2014; Accepted 28 July 2014; Published 20 October 2014

Academic Editor: David Rodríguez-Lázaro

Copyright © 2014 Vinay Khanna et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Negative staining technique of Heine is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid way of screening for coccidian parasites of the intestinal tract. But its use as a routine technique for screening of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora is restricted due to its sensitivity being lower than the gold standard method of modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. This paper emphasises the modification of original Heine staining technique which has been attempted in order to increase the sensitivity and detection of oocysts of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora. Modified Heine staining technique using malachite green is a practical, safe, and sensitive method of detecting oocysts in stool specimens. While the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique is still considered the gold standard for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp., modified negative staining technique of Heine using malachite green stain should be considered as the screening technique of first choice.