Table of Contents
ISRN Microbiology
Volume 2014, Article ID 364265, 9 pages
Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enterica Isolates from Tonsil and Jejunum with Lymph Node Tissues of Slaughtered Swine in Metro Manila, Philippines

1Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
2Natural Sciences Research Institute, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines

Received 1 January 2014; Accepted 27 January 2014; Published 4 March 2014

Academic Editors: C. M. A. Khan, T. Krishnan, and V. L. Traina-Dorge

Copyright © 2014 Kamela Charmaine S. Ng and Windell L. Rivera. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Due to frequent antibiotic exposure, swine is now recognized as potential risk in disseminating drug-resistant Salmonella enterica strains. This study thus subjected 20 randomly selected S. enterica isolates from tonsil and jejunum with lymph node (JLN) tissues of swine slaughtered in Metro Manila, Philippines, to VITEK 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The test revealed all 20 isolates had resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent, in which highest occurrence of resistance was to amikacin (100%), cefazolin (100%), cefuroxime (100%), cefuroxime axetil (100%), cefoxitin (100%), and gentamicin (100%), followed by ampicillin (50%), and then by sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim (30%). Three multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates were detected. The sole S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolate showed resistance to 12 different antibiotics including ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, amikacin, gentamicin, and tigecycline. This study is the first to report worldwide on the novel resistance to tigecycline of MDR S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolated from swine tonsil tissues. This finding poses huge therapeutic challenge since MDR S. enterica infections are associated with increased rate of hospitalization or death. Thus, continual regulation of antimicrobial use in food animals and prediction of resistant serotypes are crucial to limit the spread of MDR S. enterica isolates among hogs and humans.