Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 391692, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/391692
Research Article

In Vitro and In Vivo Biochemical Evaluations of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Garcinia kola

1Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomosho 210211, Nigeria
2Department of Medical Biosciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535, South Africa

Received 27 May 2014; Accepted 3 September 2014; Published 30 October 2014

Academic Editor: Graziella Vecchio

Copyright © 2014 Jelili A. Badmus et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. J. Modi, S. S. Khadabadi, U. A. Deokate, I. A. Farooqui, S. L. Deore, and M. R. Gangwani, “Argyreia speciosa Linn. f.: phytochemistry, pharmacognosy and pharmacological studies,” Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 34–42, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. A. Akinpelu, M. F. Adegboye, O. A. Adeloye, and A. I. Okoh, “Biocidal activity of partially purified fractions from methanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds on bacterial isolates,” Biological Research, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 277–287, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Sofowora, “Recent trends in research into African medicinal plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 38, no. 2-3, pp. 209–214, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. M. Dalziel, The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, 1937.
  5. S. K. Adesina, Z. O. Gbile, O. A. Odukoya, D. D. Akinwusi, H. C. Illoh, and A. A. Jayeola, “Survey of indigenous useful plants of West Africa with special emphasis on medicinal plants and issues associated with management,” in The United Nations Programme on Natural Resources in Africa, pp. 84–85, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  6. K. Terashima, Y. Kondo, M. Aqil, M. Waziri, and M. Niwa, “A study of biflavanones from the stems of Garcinia kola (Guttiferae),” Heterocycles, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 283–290, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. M. Iwu, “Antihepatoxic constituents of Garcinia kola seeds,” Experientia, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 699–700, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. O. Farombi, “Mechanisms for the hepatoprotective action of kolaviron: studies on hepatic enzymes, microsomal lipids and lipid peroxidation in carbontetrachloride-treated rats,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 75–80, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. O. Nwankwo, J. G. Tahnteng, and G. O. Emerole, “Inhibition of aflatoxin B1 genotoxicity in human liver-derived HepG2 cells by kolaviron biflavonoids and molecular mechanisms of action,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 351–361, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. E. Okwu, “Phytochemicals, vitamins and mineral contents of two Nigeria medicinal plants,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Sciences, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 375–381, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  11. B. Halliwell and M. Grootveld, “The measurement of free radical reactions in humans. Some thoughts for future experimentation,” FEBS Letters, vol. 213, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Beauchamp and I. Fridovich, “Superoxide dismutase: improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 276–287, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. L. Mensor, F. S. Menezes, G. G. Leitao et al., “Screening of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 15, pp. 127–130, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  14. R. Re, N. Pellegrini, A. Proteggente, A. Pannala, M. Yang, and C. Rice-Evans, “Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 26, no. 9-10, pp. 1231–1237, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Ruberto, M. T. Baratta, S. G. Deans, and H. J. D. Dorman, “Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare and Crithmum maritimum essential oils,” Planta Medica, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 687–693, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. McDonald, P. D. Prenzler, M. Antolovich, and K. Robards, “Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive extracts,” Food Chemistry, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 73–84, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Zhishen, T. Mengcheng, and W. Jianming, “The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals,” Food Chemistry, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 555–559, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Cheesbrough, District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2000.
  19. E. Beutler, O. Duron, and B. M. Kelly, “Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 61, pp. 882–888, 1963. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. P. Misra and I. Fridovich, “The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase.,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 247, no. 10, pp. 3170–3175, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. T. Rotruck, A. L. Pope, H. E. Ganther, A. B. Swanson, D. G. Hafeman, and W. G. Hoekstra, “Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glatathione peroxidase,” Science, vol. 179, no. 4073, pp. 588–590, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Varshney and R. K. Kale, “Effects of calmodulin antagonists on radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes,” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 733–743, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Kappus, “Lipid peroxidation-mechanism and biological relevance,” in Free Radical and Food Additives, O. I. Aruoma and B. Halliwell, Eds., pp. 59–75, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  24. P. G. Pietta, “Flavonoids as antioxidants,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 1035–1042, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Halliwell and J. M. C. Gutteridge, “Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radicals, transition metals and disease,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 219, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Wang, X. D. Gao, G. C. Zhou, L. Cai, and W. B. Yao, “In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Choerospondias axillaris fruit,” Food Chemistry, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 888–895, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Cao, E. Sofic, and R. L. Prior, “Antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure-activity relationships,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 749–760, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. Kumarasamy, M. Byres, P. J. Cox, M. Jaspars, L. Nahar, and S. D. Sarker, “Screening seeds of some Scottish plants for free radical scavenging activity,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 615–621, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. T. Yakubu, A. M. Akanji, and A. T. Oladiji, “Hematological evaluation in male albino rats following chronic administration of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem,” Pharmacognosy Magazine, vol. 3, pp. 34–38, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  30. H. Olson, G. Betton, D. Robinson et al., “Concordance of the toxicity of pharmaceuticals in humans and in animals,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 56–67, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. O. P. Ajagbonna, K. I. Onifade, and U. Suleiman, “Haematological and biochemical changes in rats given water extract of Calotropis procera,” Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 36–42, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  32. M. O. Abatan and R. O. Arowolo, “Toxicity of Eugenia uniflora to rats,” Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, vol. 16, pp. 16–19, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  33. R. Chavda, K. R. Vadalia, and R. l. Gokani, “Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of root bark of Calotropis procera R.Br (Asclepediaceae),” International Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 937–943, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. D. M. Townsend, K. D. Tew, and H. Tapiero, “The importance of glutathione in human disease,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 145–155, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. C. Strange, P. W. Jones, and A. A. Fryer, “Glutathione S-transferase: genetics and role in toxicology,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 112-113, pp. 357–363, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. I. Fridovich, “Superoxide anion radical (O2-.), superoxide dismutases, and related matters,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 30, pp. 18515–18517, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  37. M. Erdélyi, M. M. Mézes, and G. Virág, “Selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase in animals. I structure, function regulation,” Biokémia, vol. 23, pp. 82–88, 1999 (Hungarian). View at Google Scholar
  38. C. Ceconi, A. Cargnoni, E. Pasini, E. Condorelli, S. Curello, and R. Ferrari, “Lipid peroxidation during myocardial reperfusion,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 111, no. 1-2, pp. 49–54, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G. Poli, E. Albano, and M. U. Dianzani, “The role of lipid peroxidation in liver damage,” Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, vol. 45, no. 2–4, pp. 117–142, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus